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HRISCANSKA DEMONOLOGIJA

HRISCANSKA DEMONOLOGIJA

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christian Demonology. IIIAuthor(s): F. C. ConybeareSource:
The Jewish Quarterly Review,
Vol. 9, No. 3, (Apr., 1897), pp. 444-470Published by: University of Pennsylvania PressStable URL:
Accessed: 22/05/2008 06:03
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=upenn.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We enable thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
 
THEJEWISHQUARTERLYREVIEW
CHRISTIAN DEMONOLOGY.
III.EvidenceofAssyrianMonuments.
IT ismuch tobedesiredthatsomescholar,able todecipherfor himself thecuneiformsof ancientAssyriaandwellacquaintedwiththegeneralhistoryofmagic,shouldwrite abookinwhichtheoutlines ofAssyrianbeliefsshould beclearlyandfullytracedfromthe ancientmonumentsandillustratedfromthecopious
Ageand
continuitymaterialwhichthe recordsoflatersuperstition
of beliefin
afford.Sucha book wouldshow howpersistentdevils.and howuniformhavebeen,notonlythe beliefsin evilspirits,but themagicalpracticesand methods ofexorcizingthem,from theearliestdawnof humanciviliza-tionin
Mesopotamiasome
4,000
years
B.
c.
down
totheeighteenthcentury.InEuropeandNorthAmericaweare notwhollyemancipated yetfromsuchbeliefs;butamongthe morebackwardcivilizationsofIndia, China,andthePacifictheyarestilleverywherealiveandactive.
If,then,thephrasequodsemper,quodubique, quodab
omnibusholdstrueofanybodyof beliefitholdsgoodofthese;andtheChurchpossessesno realCatholicityl,suchasisclaimedforit,exceptin sofar as thereliesimbeddedin theNewTestament,inthewritingsofherFathersandin herrituals,thisprimitiveelementofdemonologicalbeliefandpractice.
1Cp.Plinythe Elder(Hist.Nt. xxx.4) who,speakingofmagic,says:"Adeoista totomundoconsensere,quamquamdiscordiet sibiignoto."
444
 
CHRISTIANDEMONOLOGY
InexploringtheruinsofKoyoundjikSirHenryLayard
Thelibrary
cameonalargesubterraneanchamber littered
of
Assur-
to
adepthof halfayardwithcuneiformablets.
bani-pal.
He hadfoundthelibraryofkingAssur-bani-pal.
Butthetextssofounddidnot allbelongtoso lateanepochas thatmonarch's,whosucceededonlyinB..669.Massesofthemwere intheSumero-Accadian ialectwhichprecededthe Semiticlanguageinthe basinoftheTigrisandEuphrates,andwhichwas theirsacredlanguage;andtheseSumero-Accadianclaybooks containedalsoversionsinAssyrianoftheircontents,sothatourAssyriologistscantranslatethemfor us.Prof.Sayceputsbackmuchofthisliterature,especiallythemagicalincantations andexorcisms,toabout theyear3600B.C. So remoteistheepochtowhichwecantracebacka faith inevilspirits,inpossessionbythem,intheuse ofnames,denticalwiththatoftheNewTestamentwriters.Assyro-Chaldaeanmagic,saysBabelonl,restedonthe
Natureof
beliefthat
innumerablespiritsaredispersedall
Assyrian
overnature,directingandanimatingallcreatedmagic.
beings.Theycausegoodandevil,guidetheheavenlybodies,bringondayafternightandnightafterday,watchoverthereturn oftheseasons,causewinds toblowandrain tofall,withsnow,hail,andthunderbolts.Theytoomakethelandfertileorbarren,generateanddestroylife,sendhealthordiseaseanddeath.Theyareeverywhere-inthe heavenofstars,inthebowels ofearth,orinthe middleregionsofthe air.Earth,air,fireandwaterarefull ofthem.Ofthesespiritssomearegood,somebadbynature,andtheiropposinghostsform avastdualismem-
Chaldaeans
preoccupied
bracing
theuniverse.ButtheChaldaeanswere
with
bad
more concernedwiththebadthanwiththe
sirits.
goodspirits;and thechiefpurportoftheir
incantationswastoexpeltheevil frommenandintroducegoodonesin theirplace.ForinNinevehandBabylon
lHist.Anm.de'Ohient,ewedition,tom.V, p.I94.
Gg
445

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