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angiosperm is the most successful plant in the exploitation of many terrestrial habitats

angiosperm is the most successful plant in the exploitation of many terrestrial habitats

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Published by: aesha89 on Oct 22, 2009
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02/01/2013

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Angiosperm is the most successful plant in the exploitation of many terrestrial habitats.
Based on the many adaptation strategies, discus how they adapt to various environments.

Angiosperm abundant in various types of environments. The angiosperm can leaves in water, terrestrial, tundra and in most environment. These entire environments have their distinct features. For examples, mangrove area contains very salty water. In this condition, if the plant does not have any adaptation will died. This is because the salty water act as the hypertonic solution to the sap cell of the plant. Therefore, the plant must have special adaptation in order to survive in that habitat.

The unique characteristic of angiosperms in reproduction way is one of its adaptation to various terrestrial habitat. The reproductive organ of angiosperms are flowers. Angiosperms reproduce by double fertilization. Double fertilization will lead to the formation of the endosperm that is the nutritive tissue within the seeds that feeds the developing embryo furthermore the angiosperms' ovary are protected by petal of the flower. This will give more advantage for embryo of angiosperms to survive. Besides, the flower consist of both female and male organ that located near to each other. Since angiosperms flower have characteristics such as attractive color of petal and odor it will lead to the pollination with the help of pollinators. This will result to more succeed survival of angiosperms any habitat.

In terrestrial habitat, the adaptation strategies made by angiosperms are the stems of angiosperm consist of thick bark. The thick function to limit the evaporation from the tree\u2019s trunk. So, this will reduce the rate of water loss or rate of transpiration. Since this is not a concern in the high humidity of tropical rainforests, most trees have a thin, smooth bark. The smooth characteristic resulting the other plant difficult to grow on their surface.

Some plant for example, Lianas, the climbing woody veins that drape rainforest trees. Lianas adapted to life in rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground.

Many tropical forest leaves have a drip trip. This kind of leaves have adapted to cope with exceptionally high rainforest. It is thought that these drip tips enable rain drops to run off quickly. This is because, plant need to shed water to avoid growth of fungus and bacteria in the

warm, wet tropical rainforest. Tropical forest have the greatest extends and diversity of any terrestrial biome because they have remained undisturbed far longer than forest at higher latitudes and have an almost continuous growing season. A critical limiting factor for growth in the tropical forest is light because for the age of tree crowns is so thick and growth of vines and other plants at many levels is so prolific, the light near to and on the forest floor is dim, with sunlight rarely shining through. Therefore many plant adaptation minimizing the effect of the lack of light. In the lower layers of a tropical forest, plants must be efficient for light trappers to undergo photosynthesis. Plants in the under stories have large thin leaves, which present the maximum surface for light reception and there is evidence that their photosynthetic pigments are particularly efficient in trapping light.

Vines are another adaptation for living in the upper layers of the tropical forest. They climb trees by coiling around a trunk or sending tendrils that give support while the main branch grows upward. Some vines have thorn that dig into the bark of the host tree. Others like the strangler fig, deposit seeds that germinate high on the branches, their stem-like roots grow to the ground and eventually enclosed the supporting tree.

Some plants have buttress roots. This buttress roots provide extra stability, especially since tropical rainforest trees are not typically as deed as those of trees in temperate zones. For epiphytes that live on the surface of plants, especially the trunk and branches have aerial roots that cling to the host plant, absorbed minerals and absorbed water from the atmosphere.

On tropical deltas and along ocean edges and river estuaries, trees have adapted to living in wet, marshy conditions. These trees, called mangroves, have wide-spreading stilt roots that support the trees in the tidal mud and trap nutritious organic matter. Mangrove trees also have viviparity seed. This kind of seed germinate on the mother plant. Other characteristics of mangrove plants are they capable to reduce water loss because they have succulent leaves, a kind of leaves that covered by a waxy substance. The sap cell of mangrove plants root act as hypotonic solution for the surrounding. This important to reduce high concentration of water in plant out to the surrounding that have very low water concentration.

Pitcher plant vines in the Nepenthaceae family have leaves that form a pitcher and the
pitcher is complete with a lid. The pitcher contain nectar that produce or smell foul- smelling or

sweet to attract insects such as ants and flies that lose their grip on the slick sides and fall into liquid. Inside the pitcher, there are downward-pointing hairs that function to prevent the insect\u2019s escape. The trapped insect will be digested by the plants they will provide nutrients. It is important to note that pitcher plants are not epiphytes but climbers rooted in the soil.

At desert there are also succulent plants that store water in their leaves or stem to reduce the water loss. Some plants even have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that grow after it rains. The advantage of having less leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis, while the leafless plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stem. This type of plant also have long root systems that spread out wide or go deep into the ground in order to absorb water. They are so reliable as indicators of subsurface water that people long ago learn to dig wells where they go. There also some plants that have a short life cycle that germinate in response to rain, growing, flowering and dying all within one year. These type of plants will evade drought.

The desert is not completely without water, floods also may occur at desert when rain comes suddenly and abundantly. As the consequences of the rain fall there are seems to spring to life and turn into a flower garden. The moisture does not last and the plants do not long outlive but their adaptation to drought are fascinating where some of the desert\u2019s flowering plants have seed containing chemicals that inhibit germination. These seed lie dormant in the desert soil for a long time, even through periods of transient rainfall. The amount of water require to wash out the inhibiting chemical seems nicely balance with the amount that will sustain the growth of the plant through its short life cycle. The germination inhibitors act like moisture matters and prevent the seed from germinating until the soil has enough water to ensure the plant\u2019s survival.

Other plants have developed different adaptations for conserving fluids. Hair growth is such an adaptation. The layer of hairs cools the plant, or at least prevents its temperature from raising. It also provides volume that insulates the plant body from its surrounding, so the plant is less influenced by the outside temperature. Usually, the hairs of dessert plants are light-colored, whitish-gray that brighten the plants. Light colors reflect most of sun\u2019s radiation so the plant is heated less and losses less water.

In addition to the morphological and physiological adaptations, an additional important
adaptation of extreme desrt plants is full or partial dormancy during the dry seasons. Annual

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