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Timber Piling Design Methods

# Timber Piling Design Methods

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01/10/2013

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31
CHAPTER 5.0DESIGN OF SINGLE PILES

5.1 INTRODUCTION
The methods to determine the static capacity of single piles presented in this chapter have beenselected because of their simplicity and excellent track record for predicting pile capacity whencompared to pile load tests. A step-by-step procedure is presented for each method. Eachprocedure is taken from the FHWA manual “Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations(FHWA-HI-97-013). The methods presented in this manual and when they are applicable isprovided in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1Design MethodsDesign Method Cohesionless Soil Cohesive Soil Applicable for FinalDesign
Meyerhof Yes No NoNordlund Yes No Yes
α
MethodNo Yes YesEffective Stress Yes Yes YesNottingham &SchmertmannYes Yes Yes
5.2 MEYERHOF METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS (Meyerhof, 1976)
Meyerhof developed a method of estimating pile capacity based on empirical correlationsbetween standard penetration test (SPT) results and static pile load tests. The advantages of this method are that it is very easy to use and that SPT data is typically available for a project.The major disadvantage of this method is that SPT values are non-reproducible and can beinfluenced by many factors (i.e., rod length, hammer efficiency, overburden depth, etc.).Because of the simplicity of the method, many simplifying assumptions are contained in themethod, resulting in a less reliable method than the other methods presented in this manual.
This method should be used for preliminary estimates and not for final design.
For displacement piles (e.g., timber piles) Meyerhof has established that the average unit shaftresistance (
s
) is:
s
=
50 N 2

2 ksf (5-1)
N
is the average corrected SPT resistance in blows per footThe unit toe resistance (
q
) in ksf for piles driven into sands and gravels may be approximatedby the following equation:

32
q
=
( )
b ] D N 8.0 N 8.0 N 8
BO Bo
÷+

B
N 8
(5-2)where:
O
N
= Average corrected SPT N’ value for the stratum, overlying the bearingstratum
B
N
= Average corrected SPT N’ value for the bearing stratum
B
D
= Pile embedment depth into the bearing stratum in feetb = Pile tip diameter in feetEquation 5-2 applies when the pile toe is located near the interface of two strata, with theweaker stratum above the bearing stratum. The limiting value of the unit toe resistance isreached when the embedment depth into the bearing stratum reaches 10 pile diameters.For piles driven into a uniform cohesionless stratum, the unit toe resistance in ksf is determinedfrom the following equation:
q
=
b D N 8.0
B B
÷

B
N 8
(5-3)It is recommended that the average corrected SPT N’ value
B
N
be calculated by averaging N’values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe. For piles driven into non-plasticsilts, Meyerhof recommended the unit toe resistance,
q
, be limited to 300
B
N
B
N
given in the above equation.
STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR MEYERHOF METHOD
(FHWA-HI-97-013)
Step 1
Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure.Use correction factors from Figure 5-1.N’ = C
N
Nwhere: N’ = corrected SPT N valueC
N
= correction factor for overburden stress (Figure 5-1)N = uncorrected or field SPT value
Step 2
Compute the average corrected SPT N’ value
( )
N
for each soil layer.Along the embedment length of pile delineate the soil profile into layers based ondensity indicated by the N’ value. The individual soil layers should be selectedbetween 10 and 20 feet.
Step 3
Compute the unit shaft resistance in ksf for timber piles from:
s
=
50 N 2

2
Step 4
Compute ultimate shaft resistance
s
(kips)
s
=
s
A
s

33
where:
A
s
= pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length)
Step 5
Compute the average corrected SPT N’ values
( )
O
N
and
( )
B
N
near the pile toe.In cases where the pile toe is situated near the interface of a weaker stratumoverlying the bearing stratum, compute the average corrected SPT N’ value for the stratum overlying the bearing stratum,
( )
O
N
, and the average corrected SPTN’ value for the bearing stratum
( )
B
N
.In uniform cohesionless soils, compute the average corrected SPT N’ value byaveraging N’ values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe.
Step 6
Compute the unit toe resistance
q
For weaker soils overlying the bearing stratum, compute
q
from:
q
=
( )
b D N 8.0 N 8.0 N 8
BO Bo
÷+

B
N 8
For pile in a uniform cohesionless deposit, compute
q
from:
q
=
b D N 8.0
B B
÷
B
N 8
For pile driven into non-plastic silts, the unit toe resistance should be limited to
B
N .0
ksf.
Step 7
Compute the ultimate toe resistance

(kips)
=
q
A
Where
A
is the pile toe area (ft
2
).
Step 8
Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)
Q
=
s

+ R
Step 9
Q
a
(kips)
Q
a
= Q
/ factor of Safety
The Meyerhof Method should be used only for preliminary capacity and length estimates.