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Psych Lecture Ch. 7&8

Psych Lecture Ch. 7&8

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Psych LectureChapters 7 & 8Oct. 15, 2009Preschool ChildrenAs a child grows in early childhood his world will begin to openup. He begins to become more independent, begin to focus more onadults and children outside the family, he wants to explore and askabout his surroundings even more. Interactions with his family andthose around will help shape his personality and individual ways of thinking and moving. During this stage the child will be able to ride atricycle, use safety scissors, show awareness of gender identity, how todress and undress themselves, play with other children, recall parts of a story and sing a song.Positive ParentingContinue to read to your child, nurture reading by taking them tolibraries, book stores, story time, etc., Let your child help with simplechores (folding laundry) Encourage child to play with other children(encourages sharing and friendships), Help your child’s languagedevelopment by speaking to your child in adult language usingcomplete sentences, help them to use the correct word and phrases,be clear and consistent in disciplining your child,
Model the behaviorthat you expect from him/her.
Children learn from theirenvironment. If you say or do something different, I confuses the child. Tell your child why it’s important to stay out of traffic, be cautiouswhen they are trying to ride their tricycle. Make sure to check outplayground equipment for loose parts or sharp edges. When child isoutside, keep an eye on them at all times. Teach your child to swim! Teach your child how to interact with strangers. The stages of growth of childhood come from many sources:Piaget, Kohlberg, Erikson, came up with stages regarding development.Stages of childhood are bi-cultural: by social institutions, laws thatmake up a society. While researchers and professionals usually defineearly childhood as birth to toddlers others define age 5 as a betterendpoint because it coincides with entry into the cultural practice of school. There are three broad stages of development: early childhood,middle childhood and adolescence. Definitions of these stages areorganized around primary paths of development though theboundaries of these stages are (?). Societies ideas of childhood shiftover time. And research has lead to new understandings of newdevelopment that takes place in each stage. By age 5, childrendemonstrate fairly good control of pencils, crayons and scissors. Theirgross motor accomplishments include the ability to skip and balanceon one foot; their physical growth slows down between ages 5-8, while
 
body proportions and motor skills start to incline. Physical changes inearly childhood are accompanied by changes in cognitive andlanguage ability. From the moment that they are born, children use allof their senses to attend to their environment and they tend to developa sense of cause and effect from their actions and responses. Duringthe first three years of life, children develop a spoken vocabulary of upwards of 300 to 1,000 words and they are able to use language tolearn about the world around them. At the age of 5 their vocabulary isnow approximately 5,000 words. They are able to produce 5-7 wordsentences, learn to use the past tense, and able to tell familiar storiesusing pictures as cues. Using language allows them to communicatewith others as well as solve problems. By the age of 8 years, childrenare able to demonstrate some basic understanding of less concreteconcepts (time, money) however, 8yr olds still reason in concrete waysand have difficulty reasoning abstract ideas. At age 5, the child mayexpect others to share objects freely, but still may be extremelypossessive of a favorite toy. This creates no conflict of consciencebecause fairness is determined relative to the child’s own interest.Between the ages of 5-8, they get into a broader peer context, andthey develop long lasting friendships. Social comparison is heightenedat this time and they take other people’s perspectives play a role inhow they relate to people, including their peers.1994-federal legislation was passed in this country called Goals 2000.It states that all children will enter school ready to learn. The validity of this goal has been debated and the consequences have already beenfelt. It’s been accused of standardized readiness assessments todetermine class placement for retention into kindergarten. Transitionclasses (either before kindergarten or before entering into 1
st
grade)(example: Pre K). Cut off dates are by birthdates.P. 271
 Ÿ
Gender Identity: recognition and the acceptance of self R/Tmale/female.
 Ÿ
Gender Typing: process by which a child accepts culturally acceptedbehaviors R/T their gender.
 Ÿ
Gender consistency: the recognition that one’s gender does notchange.
 Ÿ
Gender Stereotyping: exaggerated characteristics associated witheach gender.
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Sex: Male/Female
 Ÿ
Biological Perspectives on GenderBaumrind P. 278
 
Parental Discipline 7 characteristics of discipline1.To provide clear rules2.Firmly enforce the rules3.Expect children to help out with chores4.Encourage independence and self assertion5.Use explanation and reason6.See themselves as an infallible authority7.To encourage social order4 styles of Parenting1. Authoritarian: a parent that values obedience as anurture and favors punitive , forceful self measuresto curb self-will. (Because I said so) wants obedience.2. Permissive: behaves in a affirmative, inceptive andbenign manner for the child’s impulses andactions. In other words they let the child do whatever theywant to.3. Authoritative: parenting style that attempt to direct thechild’s activities in a rational or issue-orientedmanner.4. Uninvolved: uncommitted parent who appearsindifferent to a child’s need for discipline oraffection.Punishment The process by the application an inadvertent stimulus follows aparticular response so that it will decrease that particularresponse.Fear: a state of arousal , tension or apprehension caused by a specific,identifiable circumstance.Autonomy: a strong desire to do things for yourself. (socialenvironments) Time-out: a strategy used for changing behavior, removing the childfrom the setting from which the behavior occurred.Reactive Control: parents’ negative responses to a child’s disruptivebehavior.5 selective types of Defense mechanisms used by children1. Denial: refusal to admit that the situation exists or events happened.2. Identification: the process of incorporating the values attitudes andbeliefs of others .3. Withdrawal: removing one’s self from an unpleasant situation.4. Regression: returns to earlier more infantile forms of behavior as away of coping with a stressful situation.

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