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Quant Points 2 Remember - Word Format

# Quant Points 2 Remember - Word Format

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11/03/2010

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COMMON ADMISSION TEST – MBA ENTRANCEQuantitative Ability – POINTS TO REMEMBER
1.If an equation (i.e. f(x) = 0) contains all positive co-efficients of any powers of x,it has no positive roots.Eg: x
3
+3x
2
+2x+6=0 has no positive roots2.For an equation, if all the even powers of x have same sign coefficients and all theodd powers of x have the opposite sign coefficients, then it has no negative roots.3.For an equation f(x)=0 , the maximum number of positive roots it can have is thenumber of sign changes in f(x) ; and the maximum number of negative roots itcan have is the number of sign changes in f(-x)4.Complex roots occur in pairs, hence if one of the roots of an equation is 2+3i,another has to be 2-3i and if there are three possible roots of the equation, we canconclude that the last root is real. This real root could be found out by finding thesum of the roots of the equation and subtracting (2+3i)+(2-3i)=4 from that sum.5.
For a cubic equation ax
3
+bx
2
+cx+d=o
Sum of the roots = - b/a
Sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = c/a
Product of the roots = -d/a
4
+bx
3
+cx
2
+dx+e = 0
Sum of the roots = - b/a
Sum of the product of the roots taken three at a time = c/a
Sum of the product of the roots taken two at a time = -d/a
Product of the roots = e/a6.If an equation f(x)= 0 has only odd powers of x and all these have the same signcoefficients or if f(x) = 0 has only odd powers of x and all these have the samesign coefficients, then the equation has no real roots in each case (except for x=0in the second case)7.Consider the two equationsa
1
x+b
1
y=c
1
a
2
x+b
2
y=c
2
Then,
If a
1
/a
2
= b
1
/b
2
= c
1
/c
2
, then we have infinite solutions for these equations.
If a
1
/a
2
= b
1
/b
2
<> c
1
/c
2
, then we have no solution.
If a
1
/a
2
<> b
1
/b
2
, then we have a unique solution.

8.Roots of x
2
+ x + 1=0 are 1, w, w
2
where 1 + w + w
2
=0 and w
3
=19.|a| + |b| = |a + b| if a*b>=0else, |a| + |b| >= |a + b|10.The equation ax
2
+bx+c=0 will have max. value when a<0 and min. value whena>0. The max. or min. value is given by (4ac-b
2
)/4a and will occur at x = -b/2a11.
If for two numbers x + y=k (a constant), then their PRODUCT isMAXIMUM if x=y (=k/2). The maximum product is then (k
2
)/4.
If for two numbers x*y=k (a constant), then their SUM is MINIMUM if x=y (=root(k)). The minimum sum is then 2*root (k).12.Product of any two numbers = Product of their HCF and LCM. Hence product of two numbers = LCM of the numbers if they are prime to each other.13.For any 2 numbers a, b where a>b
a>AM>GM>HM>b (where AM, GM ,HM stand for arithmetic,geometric , harmonic means respectively)
(GM)^2 = AM * HM14.For three positive numbers a, b, c
(a + b + c) * (1/a + 1/b + 1/c)>=915.For any positive integer n
2<= (1 + 1/n)^n <=316.a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
>= ab + bc + caIf a=b=c, then the case of equality holds good.17.a
4
+ b
4
+ c
4
+ d
4
>= 4abcd (Equality arises when a=b=c=d=1)18.(n!)
2
> n
n
19.If a + b + c + d=constant, then the product a^p * b^q * c^r * d^s will be maximumif a/p = b/q = c/r = d/s20.If n is even, n(n+1)(n+2) is divisible by 24

21.x^n -a^n = (x-a)(x^(n-1) + x^(n-2) + .......+ a^(n-1) ) ......Very useful for findingmultiples. For example (17-14=3 will be a multiple of 17^3 - 14^3)22.e^x = 1 + (x)/1! + (x^2)/2! + (x^3)/3! + ........to infinity
Note
: 2 < e < 323.log(1+x) = x - (x^2)/2 + (x^3)/3 - (x^4)/4 .........to infinity [Note the alternatingsign . .Also note that the logarithm is with respect to base e]24.(m + n)! is divisible by m! * n!25.When a three digit number is reversed and the difference of these two numbers istaken, the middle number is always 9 and the sum of the other two numbers isalways 9.26.Any function of the type y=f(x)=(ax-b)/(bx-a) is always of the form x=f(y)
27.To Find Square of a 3-Digit Number
Let the number be XYZ
StepNo.Operation to be Performed
1Last digit = Last digit of Sq(Z)2Second last digit = 2*Y*Z + any carryover from STEP 13Third last digit 2*X*Z+ Sq(Y) + any carryover from STEP 24Fourth last digit is 2*X*Y + any carryover from STEP 35Beginning of result will be Sq(X) + any carryover from Step 4
Eg)
Let us find the square of 431
StepNo.Operation to be Performed
1Last digit = Last digit of Sq(1) = 12Second last digit = 2*3*1 + any carryover from STEP 1=6+0=63Third last digit 2*4*1+ Sq(3) + any carryover from STEP 2 = 8+9+0 =17 i.e. 7 with carry over of 14Fourth last digit is 2*4*3 + any carryover from STEP 3 = 24+1 = 25 i.e. 5with carry over of 25Beginning of result will be Sq(4) + any carryover from Step 4 = 16+2 =18
THUS SQ(431) = 185761
If the answer choices provided are such that the last two digits are different, then,we need to carry out only the first two steps only.