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Algebra Homework Set 2 Hung Tran. P198, 3 if G

Algebra Homework Set 2 Hung Tran. P198, 3 if G

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Published by thp343
Dummit and Foote's Abstract Algebra hw with several additional problems. Use at your own risk.
Dummit and Foote's Abstract Algebra hw with several additional problems. Use at your own risk.

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Algebra Homework Set 2
Hung Tran.P198, 3If G is nilpotent then it is isomorphic to the direct product of its Sylow subgroups.So every product of normal subgroup of Sylow subgroups is also a normal subgroupof G. But each Sylow subgroup P is a p-group for some prime p and by theorem6.1.1, each p-group has a normal subgroup of order
p
b
dividing
|
|
. Therefore, Ghas a normal subgroup of each order dividing
|
G
|
.Now if G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing
|
G
|
then in particular, allSylow subgroups of G are normal. By theorem 6.1.3, G is nilpotent.If G is cyclic, then it has a generator a of order
|
G
|
. For each n divides
|
G
|
, thenfor
t
=
|
G
|
/n
,
=
< a
t
is a subgroup of order n. Suppose D is any subgroup of order n. By theorem 2.3.7,
D
=
< a
d
>
for some d.
a
dn
= 1
|
G
|
divides dn,or t divides d. So D is a subgroup of T
D
=
as —D—=—T—. If G has aunique subgroup of each order dividing
G
then each Sylow subgroup is normal inG as any conjugation of a subgroup would result in a subgroup of the same order.So by 6.1.3, G is nilpotent and G is isomorphic to a direct product of its Sylowsubgroups. Let
i
be one Sylow subgroup corresponding to
p
i
a prime dividing
|
G
|
. By 6.1.1
i
has a normal subgroup of order
p
bi
for each
p
bi
dividing
|
i
|
andby the hypothesis it should be the unique subgroup in G. Let
c
(
g
) counts the num-ber of elements of order g in G.
c
(
 p
i
) =
p
i
1 as there is an unique subgroup of order
p
i
. Since each group or order
p
j
+1
i
has at least 1 subgroup of order
p
ji
andat most 1 such a subgroup, it has exactly one. So
c
(
 p
j
+1
i
) =
p
j
+1
i
 p
ji
. Let
α
bethe greatest integer such that
p
αi
divides
|
G
|
then
c
(
 p
αi
)
>
1
i
is cyclic. Thedirect product of cyclic groups of relatively prime orders is then a cyclic group.QEDP198, 4If G is a finite nilpotent group then G is isomorphic to the direct product of itsSylow subgroups by 6.1.3. If M is a maximal subgroup of G then M is isomorphicto a direct product of subgroups, each
i
is a subgroup of the Sylow subgroup
i
.At most one of them is properly included in its Sylow subgroup since otherwiselet M’ isomorphic to the same subgroups of Sylow subgroups as for M except forone, replacing
i
by
i
if 
i
is properly contained in
i
. M’ is then a propersubgroup of G, contradicting the maximality of G. Since M is a proper subgroupof G, exactly one component is properly contained in its Sylow subgroup
i
. Thatcomponent is also a maximal subgroup in
i
since otherwise by theorem 6.1.1.4, wecan construct M’ by replacing that component by its nomalizer in
i
and obtain aproper subgroup of G properly containing M. Also by 6.1.1.5, that maximal groupin
i
is of index
p
i
so M is of index
p
i
. QEDP198,5Part 2, we prove by induction on the nilpotence class c of G. If 
c
= 1
1
=
G
then G is abelian and the result follows. Suppose it is true for any
c < n
and G is anilpotent group of class of n. Suppose Z, center of G, and N a normal subgroup of N intersects trivially then consider
=
N
then
and
and
= 1.Thus K is a direct product of N and Z. Then,
x
=
x
×
x
=
×
, so K isnormal in G
K/Z is normal in G/Z. Since G/Z is nilpotent of class of n-1, we can
1
 
2
apply the induction hypothesis to conclude that K/Z intersects Z(G/Z) nontrivially,i.e., there exists Zy a coset of K, different from Z, that commutes with coset Zx forany x in G. Since K is a direct product of N and Z, Zy can be represented suchthat
y
.
ZyZx
=
ZxZy
yxy
1
x
1
. But
y
1
x
1
as N is normal so
yxy
1
x
1
or
yxy
1
x
1
= 1
xy
1
x
1
=
y
1
x
G
y
. But Zy is differentfrom Z, y is not the identity, leading to a contradiction. QEDPart 4. We also use induction on the nilpotence class c of G. If 
c
= 1
1
=
G
then G is abelian and the result follows. Suppose it is true for any
c < n
andG is a nilpotent group of class of n. Suppose
=
G
(
) then since Z=Z(G)normalizes H,
H/Z < N 
G/Z
(
H/Z 
) as G/Z has nilpotent class of n-1.Therefore, there exists
t /
such that for any
h
:
ZtZhZt
1
=
Zh
1
for some
h
1
tht
1
h
11
tht
1
or t normalizes H; thus,
H <
G
(
)contradiction. QEDP198, 9If G is nilpotent and finite, then by 6.1.3.4 G is identified with a direct product of its Sylow subgroups, each element is identified with a tuple of elements in the Sylowsubgroups. Let a, b in G such that (
|
a
|
,
|
b
|
) = 1 then we compare the two tuplescomponentwise. For each prime
p
i
, if the i-element is different from the identitythen the
p
i
divides the order of the tuple. Therefore, one component in the tupleof a is nontrivial iff the corresponding element of b is trivial. By the property of direct product, a commutes with b (proposition 5.1.2)Now suppose whenever (
|
a
|
,
|
b
|
) = 1
ab
=
ba
. Let
1
,
2
,...P 
k
be Sylow sub-groups corresponding to
p
1
,p
2
,...p
k
, distinct primes dividing
|
G
|
. Obviously
|
G
|
=
|
1
||
2
|
...
|
k
|
(1).For each
a
i
i
and
a
j
j
i
=
j
it is clear that (
|
a
i
|
,
|
b
i
|
) = 1
a
i
b
i
=
b
i
a
i
.That is each element of 
i
commutes with each element of 
j
for
i
=
j
. Therefore
|
1
×
2
...
×
k
|
=
|
1
||
2
|
...
|
k
|
=
|
G
|
. So every element in G can be presentedas a product of elements in the Sylow group, any two of them commute with eachother. So it follows immediately that each Sylow group is normal in G; hence, G isnilpotent. QEDP198, 12, 13.By Proposition 4.3.6, the number of conjugates of an element in the center of thegroup is exactly 1. By Proposition 4.3.11, two elements of 
n
are conjugate iff theyhave the same cycle type. Therefore, for
n >
2, the center of 
n
is trivial. So theupper central series for
n
,
n
3 is just (1)
(1)
...
.By direct calculation,
(
A
4
) = (1) and since for
n
5
A
n
is simple
(
A
n
) = (1).Therefore the upper central series for
A
n
,
n
4 is just (1)
(1)
...
.To calculate lower central series, first we claim that the commutator subgroup of 
n
K is
A
n
. Since each commutator is an even permutation, certainly
A
n
.Now let (a,b) be any transposition then
<
(
a,b
)
,K >
is normal in
n
as
n
/K 
is abelian (property of the commutator subgroup). Then, by 4.3.11, all transposi-tions are conjugate and by 3.5, every element of 
n
can be written as a product of transpositions. Therefore,
<
(
a,b
)
,K >
=
n
|
||
n
|
/
2 =
|
A
n
|
=
A
n
Then by direct calculation [
A
4
,A
4
] =
= ((1)
,
(12)(34)
,
(13)(24)
,
(14)(23));[
4
,A
4
] =
A
4
and [
A
4
,
] =
, therefore, the lower central series for
4
,
A
4
 
3
By problem 11 proved previously, M is abelian. Since M is finite, there exists anelement u of order p for some prime p. Consider
= (
x
|
x
 p
= 1) and it is eas-ily seen that K is a subgroup of M (since M is abelian). Now let
π
Aut
(
) thenconsider
π
(
x
) for
x
:
π
(
x
)
 p
=
π
(
x
)
...π
(
x
) =
π
(
x
 p
) =
π
(1) = 1
π
(
x
)
.That implies K is a characteristic subgroup of G; hence, K is a normal subgroup of G by an argument presented in problem 12. Because of the minimality of M andnontriviality of K (
u
), K=M. So M is abelian and every nontrivial element hasorder p implying that M is an elementary abelian p-group for some prime p. QEDP200, 32We prove by induction on G. If G has order 1,2, or 3, the statement follows im-mediately. Now suppose it is true for any finite solvable group of order less thang and
|
G
|
=
g
. Let H be a maximal subgroup of G and M is a minimmal normalsubgroup of G. If M is contained in H then by the 4th isomorphism theorem, itcorresponds to
a maximal subgroup in
G/M 
. We can apply induction on
G/M 
and by the 3rd isomorphism theorem
|
G
:
|
=
|
G/M 
:
|
, we can conclude thatH has prime power index.Now suppose M is not a subgroup of H then MH properly contains H. SinceM is normal in G, MH is also a subgroup of G (easily checked, for example,
m
1
h
1
m
2
h
2
=
m
1
h
1
m
2
h
11
h
1
h
2
=
m
3
h
3
). So the maximility of H implies thatMH=G. Then by the 2nd isomorphism theorem:
HM/M 
=
H/
(
)
|
G
||
|
=
|
||
|
|
G
||
|
=
|
||
|
Since M is a p-group and
is a subgroup of M, H must have p power index.QEDAdditional Problems1.Lemma: Let G be an Ω-group and suppose that N,U, V
G are Ω-subgroup with
G
and
and V/U is Ω-simple thena.
U
V
and
VN/UN 
is either trivial and Ω-simpleb. (
)
(
) and (
)
/
(
) is either trivial and Ω-simple.Proof: Direct application of the 2nd or Diomond Isomorphism theorem. QEDNow let
G
=
G
0
G
1
...
G
n
= (1) be the Ω-composition series and consider
i
=
G
i
then, by part b of the lemma,
=
0
1
...
n
= (1) and eachof the factor
i
/K 
i
+1
is Ω-simple.Now we define
i
=
HG
i
and by part a of thelemma, we have
G
=
0
1
...
n
=
and
i
and
i
together constitute anΩ-series for G. Since each factor is either trivial or Ω-simple we can delete someterms in the series to make an Ω-composition series. The Ω-composition series forH and G/H are constructed from
i
and
i
/H 
similarly. QED2.Since H is one of the terms in a composition series for G, and the constructionsof composition series of H and G/H are corresponding with the contruction of acomposition series of G we have:
l
(
G
) =
l
(
) +
l
(
G/H 
).Since
1
and
2
are normal in G we have
1
normalizes
2
and we can apply the2nd isomorphism theorem:
1
2
/H 
1
=
2
/
(
1
2
)to obtain:
l
(
1
2
)
l
(
1
) =
l
(
2
)
l
(
1
2
). QED

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