Algebra Homework Set 2
Hung Tran.P198, 3If G is nilpotent then it is isomorphic to the direct product of its Sylow subgroups.So every product of normal subgroup of Sylow subgroups is also a normal subgroupof G. But each Sylow subgroup P is a pgroup for some prime p and by theorem6.1.1, each pgroup has a normal subgroup of order
p
b
dividing

P

. Therefore, Ghas a normal subgroup of each order dividing

G

.Now if G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing

G

then in particular, allSylow subgroups of G are normal. By theorem 6.1.3, G is nilpotent.If G is cyclic, then it has a generator a of order

G

. For each n divides

G

, thenfor
t
=

G

/n
,
T
=
< a
t
is a subgroup of order n. Suppose D is any subgroup of order n. By theorem 2.3.7,
D
=
< a
d
>
for some d.
a
dn
= 1
⇒ 
G

divides dn,or t divides d. So D is a subgroup of T
⇒
D
=
T
as —D—=—T—. If G has aunique subgroup of each order dividing
G
then each Sylow subgroup is normal inG as any conjugation of a subgroup would result in a subgroup of the same order.So by 6.1.3, G is nilpotent and G is isomorphic to a direct product of its Sylowsubgroups. Let
P
i
be one Sylow subgroup corresponding to
p
i
a prime dividing

G

. By 6.1.1
P
i
has a normal subgroup of order
p
bi
for each
p
bi
dividing

P
i

andby the hypothesis it should be the unique subgroup in G. Let
c
(
g
) counts the number of elements of order g in G.
c
(
p
i
) =
p
i
−
1 as there is an unique subgroup of order
p
i
. Since each group or order
p
j
+1
i
has at least 1 subgroup of order
p
ji
andat most 1 such a subgroup, it has exactly one. So
c
(
p
j
+1
i
) =
p
j
+1
i
−
p
ji
. Let
α
bethe greatest integer such that
p
αi
divides

G

then
c
(
p
αi
)
>
1
⇒
P
i
is cyclic. Thedirect product of cyclic groups of relatively prime orders is then a cyclic group.QEDP198, 4If G is a ﬁnite nilpotent group then G is isomorphic to the direct product of itsSylow subgroups by 6.1.3. If M is a maximal subgroup of G then M is isomorphicto a direct product of subgroups, each
M
i
is a subgroup of the Sylow subgroup
P
i
.At most one of them is properly included in its Sylow subgroup since otherwiselet M’ isomorphic to the same subgroups of Sylow subgroups as for M except forone, replacing
M
i
by
P
i
if
M
i
is properly contained in
P
i
. M’ is then a propersubgroup of G, contradicting the maximality of G. Since M is a proper subgroupof G, exactly one component is properly contained in its Sylow subgroup
P
i
. Thatcomponent is also a maximal subgroup in
P
i
since otherwise by theorem 6.1.1.4, wecan construct M’ by replacing that component by its nomalizer in
P
i
and obtain aproper subgroup of G properly containing M. Also by 6.1.1.5, that maximal groupin
P
i
is of index
p
i
so M is of index
p
i
. QEDP198,5Part 2, we prove by induction on the nilpotence class c of G. If
c
= 1
⇒
Z
1
=
G
then G is abelian and the result follows. Suppose it is true for any
c < n
and G is anilpotent group of class of n. Suppose Z, center of G, and N a normal subgroup of N intersects trivially then consider
K
=
NZ
then
N
K
and
Z
K
and
N
∩
Z
= 1.Thus K is a direct product of N and Z. Then,
K
x
=
Z
x
×
N
x
=
Z
×
N
, so K isnormal in G
⇒
K/Z is normal in G/Z. Since G/Z is nilpotent of class of n1, we can
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