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Algebra Homework Set 2 Hung Tran. P198, 3 if G

# Algebra Homework Set 2 Hung Tran. P198, 3 if G

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Dummit and Foote's Abstract Algebra hw with several additional problems. Use at your own risk.
Dummit and Foote's Abstract Algebra hw with several additional problems. Use at your own risk.

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12/07/2009

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Algebra Homework Set 2
Hung Tran.P198, 3If G is nilpotent then it is isomorphic to the direct product of its Sylow subgroups.So every product of normal subgroup of Sylow subgroups is also a normal subgroupof G. But each Sylow subgroup P is a p-group for some prime p and by theorem6.1.1, each p-group has a normal subgroup of order
p
b
dividing
|
|
. Therefore, Ghas a normal subgroup of each order dividing
|
G
|
.Now if G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing
|
G
|
then in particular, allSylow subgroups of G are normal. By theorem 6.1.3, G is nilpotent.If G is cyclic, then it has a generator a of order
|
G
|
. For each n divides
|
G
|
, thenfor
t
=
|
G
|
/n
,
=
< a
t
is a subgroup of order n. Suppose D is any subgroup of order n. By theorem 2.3.7,
D
=
< a
d
>
for some d.
a
dn
= 1
|
G
|
divides dn,or t divides d. So D is a subgroup of T
D
=
as —D—=—T—. If G has aunique subgroup of each order dividing
G
then each Sylow subgroup is normal inG as any conjugation of a subgroup would result in a subgroup of the same order.So by 6.1.3, G is nilpotent and G is isomorphic to a direct product of its Sylowsubgroups. Let
i
be one Sylow subgroup corresponding to
p
i
a prime dividing
|
G
|
. By 6.1.1
i
has a normal subgroup of order
p
bi
for each
p
bi
dividing
|
i
|
andby the hypothesis it should be the unique subgroup in G. Let
c
(
g
) counts the num-ber of elements of order g in G.
c
(
p
i
) =
p
i
1 as there is an unique subgroup of order
p
i
. Since each group or order
p
j
+1
i
has at least 1 subgroup of order
p
ji
andat most 1 such a subgroup, it has exactly one. So
c
(
p
j
+1
i
) =
p
j
+1
i
p
ji
. Let
α
bethe greatest integer such that
p
αi
divides
|
G
|
then
c
(
p
αi
)
>
1
i
is cyclic. Thedirect product of cyclic groups of relatively prime orders is then a cyclic group.QEDP198, 4If G is a ﬁnite nilpotent group then G is isomorphic to the direct product of itsSylow subgroups by 6.1.3. If M is a maximal subgroup of G then M is isomorphicto a direct product of subgroups, each
i
is a subgroup of the Sylow subgroup
i
.At most one of them is properly included in its Sylow subgroup since otherwiselet M’ isomorphic to the same subgroups of Sylow subgroups as for M except forone, replacing
i
by
i
if
i
is properly contained in
i
. M’ is then a propersubgroup of G, contradicting the maximality of G. Since M is a proper subgroupof G, exactly one component is properly contained in its Sylow subgroup
i
. Thatcomponent is also a maximal subgroup in
i
since otherwise by theorem 6.1.1.4, wecan construct M’ by replacing that component by its nomalizer in
i
and obtain aproper subgroup of G properly containing M. Also by 6.1.1.5, that maximal groupin
i
is of index
p
i
so M is of index
p
i
. QEDP198,5Part 2, we prove by induction on the nilpotence class c of G. If
c
= 1
1
=
G
then G is abelian and the result follows. Suppose it is true for any
c < n
and G is anilpotent group of class of n. Suppose Z, center of G, and N a normal subgroup of N intersects trivially then consider
=
N
then
and
and
= 1.Thus K is a direct product of N and Z. Then,
x
=
x
×
x
=
×
, so K isnormal in G
K/Z is normal in G/Z. Since G/Z is nilpotent of class of n-1, we can
1

2
apply the induction hypothesis to conclude that K/Z intersects Z(G/Z) nontrivially,i.e., there exists Zy a coset of K, diﬀerent from Z, that commutes with coset Zx forany x in G. Since K is a direct product of N and Z, Zy can be represented suchthat
y
.
ZyZx
=
ZxZy
yxy
1
x
1
. But
y
1
x
1
as N is normal so
yxy
1
x
1
or
yxy
1
x
1
= 1
xy
1
x
1
=
y
1
x
G
y
. But Zy is diﬀerentfrom Z, y is not the identity, leading to a contradiction. QEDPart 4. We also use induction on the nilpotence class c of G. If
c
= 1
1
=
G
then G is abelian and the result follows. Suppose it is true for any
c < n
andG is a nilpotent group of class of n. Suppose
=
G
(
) then since Z=Z(G)normalizes H,
H/Z < N
G/Z
(
H/Z
) as G/Z has nilpotent class of n-1.Therefore, there exists
t /
such that for any
h
:
ZtZhZt
1
=
Zh
1
for some
h
1
tht
1
h
11
tht
1
or t normalizes H; thus,
H <
G
(
)contradiction. QEDP198, 9If G is nilpotent and ﬁnite, then by 6.1.3.4 G is identiﬁed with a direct product of its Sylow subgroups, each element is identiﬁed with a tuple of elements in the Sylowsubgroups. Let a, b in G such that (
|
a
|
,
|
b
|
) = 1 then we compare the two tuplescomponentwise. For each prime
p
i
, if the i-element is diﬀerent from the identitythen the
p
i
divides the order of the tuple. Therefore, one component in the tupleof a is nontrivial iﬀ the corresponding element of b is trivial. By the property of direct product, a commutes with b (proposition 5.1.2)Now suppose whenever (
|
a
|
,
|
b
|
) = 1
ab
=
ba
. Let
1
,
2
,...P
k
be Sylow sub-groups corresponding to
p
1
,p
2
,...p
k
, distinct primes dividing
|
G
|
. Obviously
|
G
|
=
|
1
||
2
|
...
|
k
|
(1).For each
a
i
i
and
a
j
j
i
=
j
it is clear that (
|
a
i
|
,
|
b
i
|
) = 1
a
i
b
i
=
b
i
a
i
.That is each element of
i
commutes with each element of
j
for
i
=
j
. Therefore
|
1
×
2
...
×
k
|
=
|
1
||
2
|
...
|
k
|
=
|
G
|
. So every element in G can be presentedas a product of elements in the Sylow group, any two of them commute with eachother. So it follows immediately that each Sylow group is normal in G; hence, G isnilpotent. QEDP198, 12, 13.By Proposition 4.3.6, the number of conjugates of an element in the center of thegroup is exactly 1. By Proposition 4.3.11, two elements of
n
are conjugate iﬀ theyhave the same cycle type. Therefore, for
n >
2, the center of
n
is trivial. So theupper central series for
n
,
n
3 is just (1)
(1)
...
.By direct calculation,
(
A
4
) = (1) and since for
n
5
A
n
is simple
(
A
n
) = (1).Therefore the upper central series for
A
n
,
n
4 is just (1)
(1)
...
.To calculate lower central series, ﬁrst we claim that the commutator subgroup of
n
K is
A
n
. Since each commutator is an even permutation, certainly
A
n
.Now let (a,b) be any transposition then
<
(
a,b
)
,K >
is normal in
n
as
n
/K
is abelian (property of the commutator subgroup). Then, by 4.3.11, all transposi-tions are conjugate and by 3.5, every element of
n
can be written as a product of transpositions. Therefore,
<
(
a,b
)
,K >
=
n
|
||
n
|
/
2 =
|
A
n
|
=
A
n
Then by direct calculation [
A
4
,A
4
] =
= ((1)
,
(12)(34)
,
(13)(24)
,
(14)(23));[
4
,A
4
] =
A
4
and [
A
4
,
] =
, therefore, the lower central series for
4
,
A
4

3
By problem 11 proved previously, M is abelian. Since M is ﬁnite, there exists anelement u of order p for some prime p. Consider
= (
x
|
x
p
= 1) and it is eas-ily seen that K is a subgroup of M (since M is abelian). Now let
π
Aut
(
) thenconsider
π
(
x
) for
x
:
π
(
x
)
p
=
π
(
x
)
...π
(
x
) =
π
(
x
p
) =
π
(1) = 1
π
(
x
)
.That implies K is a characteristic subgroup of G; hence, K is a normal subgroup of G by an argument presented in problem 12. Because of the minimality of M andnontriviality of K (
u
), K=M. So M is abelian and every nontrivial element hasorder p implying that M is an elementary abelian p-group for some prime p. QEDP200, 32We prove by induction on G. If G has order 1,2, or 3, the statement follows im-mediately. Now suppose it is true for any ﬁnite solvable group of order less thang and
|
G
|
=
g
. Let H be a maximal subgroup of G and M is a minimmal normalsubgroup of G. If M is contained in H then by the 4th isomorphism theorem, itcorresponds to
a maximal subgroup in
G/M
. We can apply induction on
G/M
and by the 3rd isomorphism theorem
|
G
:
|
=
|
G/M
:
|
, we can conclude thatH has prime power index.Now suppose M is not a subgroup of H then MH properly contains H. SinceM is normal in G, MH is also a subgroup of G (easily checked, for example,
m
1
h
1
m
2
h
2
=
m
1
h
1
m
2
h
11
h
1
h
2
=
m
3
h
3
). So the maximility of H implies thatMH=G. Then by the 2nd isomorphism theorem:
HM/M
=
H/
(
)
|
G
||
|
=
|
||
|
|
G
||
|
=
|
||
|
Since M is a p-group and
is a subgroup of M, H must have p power index.QEDAdditional Problems1.Lemma: Let G be an Ω-group and suppose that N,U, V
G are Ω-subgroup with
G
and
and V/U is Ω-simple thena.
U
V
and
VN/UN
is either trivial and Ω-simpleb. (
)
(
) and (
)
/
(
) is either trivial and Ω-simple.Proof: Direct application of the 2nd or Diomond Isomorphism theorem. QEDNow let
G
=
G
0
G
1
...
G
n
= (1) be the Ω-composition series and consider
i
=
G
i
then, by part b of the lemma,
=
0
1
...
n
= (1) and eachof the factor
i
/K
i
+1
is Ω-simple.Now we deﬁne
i
=
HG
i
and by part a of thelemma, we have
G
=
0
1
...
n
=
and
i
and
i
together constitute anΩ-series for G. Since each factor is either trivial or Ω-simple we can delete someterms in the series to make an Ω-composition series. The Ω-composition series forH and G/H are constructed from
i
and
i
/H
similarly. QED2.Since H is one of the terms in a composition series for G, and the constructionsof composition series of H and G/H are corresponding with the contruction of acomposition series of G we have:
l
(
G
) =
l
(
) +
l
(
G/H
).Since
1
and
2
are normal in G we have
1
normalizes
2
and we can apply the2nd isomorphism theorem:
1
2
/H
1
=
2
/
(
1
2
)to obtain:
l
(
1
2
)
l
(
1
) =
l
(
2
)
l
(
1
2
). QED

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