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A Holistic Approach to Design Innovation

A Holistic Approach to Design Innovation

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Published by: a_saeton on Oct 23, 2009
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11/22/2012

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A HOLISTIC EXPERIENTIAL APPROACHTO DESIGN INNOVATION
Woo, Heung Ryong ¹Department of Industrial Design, Seoul National University of Technologyhrwoo@snut.ac.kr.
ABSTRACT
The primary purpose of this study is to develop a model for a holistic design approach (HDA)for experiential design. We regard experiential design as a transformational process betweenconcept and experience, with a holistic view of design phenomena. Through the stages of research, design and innovation, a design concept emerges, ripens and matures through theprocess of externalization. Here, experience is first perceived by the sensory modalities. Then,knowledge is formed, and the creative abilities work towards problem solving. Thinking modescontrol all of these procedures, which are interrelated with experiential design. To confirm theweights of research, design and innovation in relation to the practical fields, we reviewed andreinterpreted ‘The World’s Most Innovative Companies’, surveyed by the Boston ConsultingGroup. Finally, we proposed a revised model of the HDA, which could be helpful in developingvaluable solutions and creating a positive experience.Key words: holistic design approach, cognitive approach, experiential design
 
 
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1. INTRODUCTION
 
Design is a typical form of creative problem solving in today’s complex working environment.For the problem that is being considered, designers aim to bring about a desired solution thatis something new and valuable (During, 1999). The designer must identify problems, selectappropriate goals, and realize solutions. Therefore, design is regarded as an open-endedproblem-solving activity that requires great creativity, and the typical style of the designer’sbehavior underpins their creativity (Cross, 1982).Friedman (2007) argued that designers work on several levels: an analyst who discoversproblems; a synthesist who helps to solve problems; a generalist who understands the rangeof talents that must be engaged in order to realize solutions; a leader who organizes teamswhen one range of talents is not enough. Moreover, the designer is a critic whose post-solution analysis ensures that the right problem has been solved (Friedman, 2007).We regard design as a creative and experience-oriented process. Facing a new design case,a designer will recall their memories and imagine ideas accumulated from their experience andknowledge. Then, the designer will attempt to find a solution, a new experience, from thesesimilar cases through adaptation or synthesis. As a discipline, though, experiential design (ED)is still somewhat in its infancy, and has only recently become recognized and named. Itconsists of diverse disciplines such as digital media, theater, graphic design, storytelling,exhibit design, theme-park design, online design, game design, interior design, architecture,and so forth. Collaboration among design teams is necessary because each part of the designconstrains the others. It can therefore help to connect the many related disciplines. At the coreof ED are methods for examining, interpreting, and organizing everyday experience in a waythat is useful to the people involved in all aspects of design development, including businessstrategists, product and brand managers, designers, marketers, and engineers (Cain, 1998).ED is not driven by a single design discipline, but instead requires a truly cross-disciplineperspective that considers all aspects of the brand/business, from the product, packaging andretail environment to the clothing and the attitude of the employees. In ED, we need to dealwith collaborative and cognitive approaches to design knowledge, and take note of cognitiveinteraction using a holistic view of design phenomena. In short, a holistic approach issignificant in situations where design is multi-dimensional and complex.
 
 
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2. COGNITIVE APPROACH IN DESIGN
2.1 DESIGN KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE
We are moving from an economy and a society built on the logical, linear, computer-likecapabilities of the Information Age to an economy and a society built on the inventive,empathic, big picture capabilities of what’s rising in its place, the Conceptual Age. It is an ageanimated by a different form of thinking and a new approach to life. In this regard, Pinkproposed that High Concept involves the capacity to detect patterns and opportunities, tocreate artistic and emotional beauty, to craft a satisfying narrative, and to combine seeminglyunrelated ideas into something new. Therefore High Concept could be a core principle for theexperience design, and form the basis of experience economy. (Daniel H. Pink, 2007)Experience design is a design approach which focuses on the quality of the user experienceduring the whole period of engagement with a product: from the first impression and thefeeling of discovery, through aspects of usability, cultural relevance and durability, to thememory of the complete relationship. Also itconsiders the form, content and context of communication occurring over time. The simple way to think about what influences experienceis to think about the components of a user-product interaction, and what surrounds it.
Users 
represent how people influence experience. Users bring to the moment all their prior experiences, as well as their emotions and feelings, values, and cognitive models for hearing,seeing, touching, and interpreting.
Products 
represent how artifacts influence experience.(Forlizzi, J., Ford, S. 2000)
Figure 1: A Model of Experience Design

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