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Possible new measure of Total Support for Development: Options Regarding Peace and Security, Climate Change and Global Programmes

Possible new measure of Total Support for Development: Options Regarding Peace and Security, Climate Change and Global Programmes

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Published by OECD
Paper to the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) outlining options for the inclusion of spending relating to peace and security, climate change and global programmes in a new measure of total support for development
Paper to the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) outlining options for the inclusion of spending relating to peace and security, climate change and global programmes in a new measure of total support for development

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Published by: OECD on Mar 27, 2014
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 ecl ssified
    D  e  c    l   a   s   s    i    f    i  e   d
 
For Official Use DCD/DAC(2014)7
 
Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques
 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
 
29-Jan-2014
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 
English - Or. English
DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION DIRECTORATE
DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE COMMITTEE POSSIBLE NEW MEASURE OF TOTAL SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT: Options Regarding Peace and Security, Climate Change and Global Programmes DAC Meeting, 10 February 2014
This document is submitted for DISCUSSION under agenda item 3 of the Draft Annotated DAC Agenda [DCD/DAC/A(2014)2]. The note follows the discussion on the possible new measure of total official support for development at the 3  December 2013 meeting of the DAC. It addresses the issues not covered in the first discussion paper [DCD/DAC(2013)36], namely efforts to promote peace, security and justice in developing countries (section II), combat climate change (section III) and support global programmes which benefit developing countries but also  DAC members themselves (section IV). Members are invited to share their preliminary views on the issues and questions highlighted in bold and the more general question of what further analytical work should be carried out in these areas in the coming months.
Contact: Julia Benn - Tel: +33 1 45 24 90 39 - Email: julia.benn@oecd.org
JT03351671
Complete document available on OLIS in its original format
 This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area.
D C D /  DA C  (   0  )   7 
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DCD/DAC(2014)7 2
 POSSIBLE NEW MEASURE OF TOTAL OFFICIAL SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPMENT: OPTIONS REGARDING PEACE AND SECURITY, CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL PROGRAMMES
1. This paper follows the December 2013 DAC discussions on a possible new measure of total official support for development. It addresses a number of issues not covered in the first discussion paper, namely efforts to promote peace, security and justice in developing countries (section II), combat climate change (section III) and support global programmes which benefit developing countries but also DAC members themselves (section IV).
Members are invited to share their preliminary views on the issues raised
 
and the more general question of 
 
what further analytical work in these areas should be carried out in the coming months
. 2. The paper is presented
for discussion at the 10 February 2014 meeting of the DAC
, as per the calendar of development finance. This discussion, together with that held on 27 January 2014 on the options for modernising the ODA measure [DCD/DAC(2014)3], the DAC List of ODA Recipients [DCD/DAC(2014)4], and members’ comments on DCD/DAC(2013)36, will provide the basis for the issues papers for the Senior Level Meeting scheduled on 3-4 March 2014.
II. Efforts to Promote Peace, Security and Justice
3. The Statistical Reporting Directives provide specific instructions on the ODA eligibility of security expenditure (see summary in Box 1). ODA generally excludes financing military equipment and services, military components of peacekeeping operations and combatting terrorism. Generally included are civilian peacebuilding and conflict resolution activities and strengthening civilian oversight of security system management and reform. As regards police training, the Directives specify that training for routine  police functions is eligible, while that for counter-subversion, suppression of political dissidence or intelligence gathering on political activities is not. 4. Members have previously indicated their agreement on this approach
1
 to covering the major areas of intervention supported by bilateral and multilateral donor agencies. Nevertheless, the Secretariat regularly receives questions on the non ODA-eligible activities and requests for help in the interpretation of the Directives. The questions raised have mainly related to peacekeeping, police training and counter-terrorism (although, not exclusively so). These have become more pronounced as research and evidence have pushed donors to engage more extensively on security and justice issues.
2
 Another typical question concerns situations where one component of an activity may be eligible but another not (e.g., delivery of humanitarian aid by military personnel, with relief goods delivered by a military aircraft being ODA-eligible but the total costs of the pilot not).
1 . The boundaries of ODA in the field of peace and security were set through an HLM decision in 2005 and reconfirmed in 2007. Cf. DCD/DAC(2007)23/REV2. 2 . See for example the World Bank’s
World Development Report 2011 – Conflict, Security, and  Development 
.
 
 DCD/DAC(2014)7 35. Security and development are now increasingly recognised as inextricably linked. The endorsement of the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States at Busan by both developing and developed countries confirmed the importance of the security and development nexus. While not mentioned in the HLM mandate on development finance, the inclusion of currently non ODA-eligible security expenditures in the broader measure of total official support for development should be explored, especially if in the context of post-2015 sustainable development goals peace is explicitly defined as an “enabler of development”. Similarly to the first discussion paper on the broader measure, members’  preliminary views are sought below through a number of specific examples. In essence, they highlight options on the outer boundaries of what could be included in a total measure and where the boundary should be between ODA and a total measure of official support.
Box 1. Key elements of the Reporting Directives concerning ODA eligibility of security expenditure
[cf. DCD/DAC(2013)15/FINAL, paragraphs 76-81 and the Case-book (2007)]
 
 
Financing of military equipment and services
 – generally not ODA-eligible apart from additional costs incurred for the use of military personnel to deliver humanitarian aid or perform development services;
 
Combatting terrorism
 – generally not ODA-eligible due to perceived links to domestic security;
 
Expenditure on police training 
 – ODA-eligible for routine police functions, but not for counter-subversion, suppression of political dissidence or intelligence gathering on political activities;
 
Peacekeeping
 – eligibility is restricted to expenditures within a UN context in nine activity areas, including security sector reform and other rule of law activities;
 
Management of security expenditure
 – Strengthening of civilian oversight and broader public financial management is generally ODA eligible;
 
Enhancing civil society engagement in security management 
 – is generally ODA eligible;
 
Security System Reform
 – non-military competence/capacity and planning activities to promote accountability are generally ODA eligible;
 
Civilian Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution
 – Aspects of this are ODA-eligible, excluding engagement with military strategy and defense co-operation.
 
Reintegration of combatants and control of small arms
 – generally ODA-eligible with some limitations.
1
 
 
Removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance
 – generally ODA-eligible;
 
Child Soldiers
 – efforts to prevent and/or demobilise child soldiers are generally ODA-eligible. 1. Disarmament of mass-destruction weapons and anti-proliferation of nuclear weapons is not mentioned in the Directives but is not considered as ODA-eligible.

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