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Notes

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Eng9977 - Computational Fluid Dynamics 1
1 Introduction
Why use computational ‡uid dynamics (CFD)?
Analytical solution may be: (1) tedious; (2) too complicated; and/or (3) notpossible (due to geometry or boundary conditions).
Experiments may be unfeasible.
Empirical correlations may not be available.
The key idea of any numerical method is to “discretize" the governing di¤erentialequation(s)
!
algebraic equations that may be solved by one of several methods.
The …rst step in CFD is to discretize the calculation domain, i.e. the region in whichthe solution is desired. For example, a regular shaped domain can be discretized witha line-by-line mesh, with nodes located at the intersection of the mesh (or grid) lines.
The domain has been discretized with a set of distinct nodes, i.e. we are no longerconcerned with the domain as a continuum, but with the values of unknowns at eachnode (similar to experimental measurement).
The techniques used to discretize the governing di¤erential equation depend upon themethod used:1. Finite Di¤erence (FD)
original method
common technique presented in numerical methods courses to solve Laplace’sequation, and in undergraduate heat transfer texts (e.g. Incropera and De-Witt (Sections 4.4–4.5))
straightforward application of Taylor’s series approximations to the deriva-tives in the governing equation(s)
limited by geometry

Eng9977 - Computational Fluid Dynamics 22. Finite Elements (FE)
discretize the domain with elements of varying shape (well suited to irregulargeometries)
can be quite complex to derive
Galerkin method of weighted residuals
origins in stress analysis3. Finite Volume (FV)
developed in the context of heat transfer and ‡uid ‡ow
discretization based on the application of conservation principles (e.g. 1stLaw) to control volumes constructed around the nodes in a mesh
physically meaningful
limited by geometry
The di¤erential form of the governing equation is not required!4. Finite Volume Element (FVE) or Control Volume Finite Element (CVFE)
use the advantageous features of …nite volume and …nite element methods
suitable for irregular geometries
possess the physically meaningful interpretations present in FV methods5. Boundary Elements (BE)
only the boundary of a domain is discretized
Useful (and very e¢cient) when only information on the boundary of thedomain is required (e.g. free surface ‡ows).
highly mathematical
2 One-Dimensional Heat Conduction
2.1 Governing Equation
Consider one-dimensional, steady state conduction heat transfer, which is governedby the following equation:
ddx
kdT dx
+ _
= 0
(1)
2.2 Domain discretization
A one-dimensional problem (e.g. a plane wall with sources) can be discretized with aseries of nodes as shown below.

Eng9977 - Computational Fluid Dynamics 3
Control volumes are de…ned for each node by placing control volume faces in betweeneach node. The control volume faces do not have to be mid way between the nodes.
Focusing attention on only three nodes in this domain, and in particular a node
P
, andits two neighbour nodes,
E
(east) and
W
(west), allows the de…nition of nomenclaturethat will be used in the derivation of the discretized form of the governing equation.
Note:
e
and
w
indicate the east and west faces of the cv.
x
is the spacing between nodes, and
x
e
is not necessarily equal to
x
w
, i.e. thenodal distribution may be nonuniform.

x
is the width of the control volume (cv)
For convenience in the folllowing derivations, the cv faces are placed midwaybetween the nodes, therefore,

x
= (
x
e
+
x
w
)
=
2
.
2.3 Conservation Equation
Two methods may be used to derive the conservation equation that will be appliedto the control volume that is constructed around node

:1. Integrate the governing equation over the cv from the
w
face to the
e
face:
ew
ddx
kdT dx
dx
+
ew
_
q dx
= 0
(2)
k
e
dT dx
e
k
w
dT dx
w
+ _
x
= 0
(3)2. Apply the 1st Law to the cv around node
P
:
24
Rate of heatconductedin the
w
face
35
+
24
Rate of heatgenerationwithin the cv
35
24
Rate of heatconductedout the
e
face
35
= 0
(4)
w
+ _

e
= 0
(5)Using Fourier’s Law:
k
w
w
+ _
qA
x
+
k
e
e
= 0
(6)or
k
e
dT dx
e
k
w
dT dx
w
+ _
x
= 0
(7)