, Article 93, clause 1:
1. All Members of the United Nations are "ipso facto" parties to the Statute of the International Courtof Justice.
Article 94, clause 1 and 2 establishes the duty of all UN members to comply with decisions of theCourt involving them. If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Councilfor enforcement action:
Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the decision of the International Courtof Justice in any case to which it is a party.
2. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security Council, which may, if it deems necessary, makerecommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.
Only states may be parties in contentious cases, on the other side, individuals, corporations, partsof a federal state, NGOs, the UN organs and self-determination groups are excluded from directparticipation in cases. The United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986, and soaccepts the court's jurisdiction only on a case to case basis.Since the International Court of Justice deals only with states, there is an autonomous branch of lawcalled International Criminal Law (ICL).
THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW
The International Criminal Law (ICL) deals with international crimes, the courts and tribunals areset up to arbitrate cases in which persons have incurred international criminal responsibility. Itrepresents a significant departure from classical international law, which was mainly considered lawcreated by states for the benefit of states, but tended to ignore the individual as a subject of the law.However, the precise parameters of this body of law are often unclear, perhaps due to the rapid andcomplex developments of our global society. In its widest context, the source of internationalcriminal law might be derived from the general principles of international law recognized bycivilized nations; and therefore, found in the customary law accepted by states, the general criminallaw recognized by nations, and the treaties which govern particular conduct.Today, the most important institution of the International Criminal Law is the InternationalCriminal Court (ICC), as well as several "ad hoc" tribunals, such as the International CriminalTribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda(ICTR).
THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT