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Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences

Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences

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Published by RyanElias
In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
was introduced and a formula for its nth term was obtained using the concept of right and left circulant matrices.
In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
was introduced and a formula for its nth term was obtained using the concept of right and left circulant matrices.

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Scientia Magna
Vol. 8 (2012), No. 4, 88-91
Smarandache cyclicgeometric determinant sequences
A. C. F. BuenoDepartment of Mathematics and Physics, Central Luzon State University,Science City of Mu˜noz 3120, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Abstract
 In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequencewas introduced and a formula for its
 n
th
term was obtained using the concept of right andleft circulant matrices.
Keywords
 Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence, determinant, right circulan-t matrix, left circulant matrix.
§
1. Introduction and preliminaries
Majumdar
 [1]
gave the formula for
 n
th
term of the following sequences: Smarandache cyclicnatural determinant sequence, Smarandache cyclic arithmetic determinant sequence, Smaran-dache bisymmetric natural determinant sequence and Smarandache bisymmetric arithmeticdeterminant sequence.
Definition 1.1.
 A Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
 {
SCGDS 
(
n
)
}
 isa sequence of the form
{
SCGDS 
(
n
)
}
 =
|
a
|
,
a arar a
,
a ar ar
2
ar ar
2
aar
2
a ar
,...
.
Definition 1.2.
 A matrix
 RCIRC 
n
(
c
)
 ∈
 M 
nxn
(
R
) is said to be a right circulant matrixif it is of the form
RCIRC 
n
(
c
) =
c
0
 c
1
 c
2
 ... c
n
2
 c
n
1
c
n
1
 c
0
 c
1
 ... c
n
3
 c
n
2
c
n
2
 c
n
1
 c
0
 ... c
n
4
 c
n
3
......... ... ......
c
2
 c
3
 c
4
 ... c
0
 c
1
c
1
 c
2
 c
3
 ... c
n
1
 c
0
,
where
 c
 = (
c
0
,c
1
,c
2
,...,c
n
2
,c
n
1
) is the circulant vector.
 
Vol. 8 Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences
 89
Definition 1.3.
 A matrix
 LCIRC 
n
(
c
)
 ∈
 M 
nxn
(
R
) is said to be a leftt circulant matrix if it is of the form
LCIRC 
n
(
c
) =
c
0
 c
1
 c
2
 ... c
n
2
 c
n
1
c
1
 c
2
 c
3
 ... c
n
1
 c
0
c
2
 c
3
 c
4
 ... c
0
 c
1
......... ... ......
c
n
2
 c
n
1
 c
0
 ... c
n
4
 c
n
3
c
n
1
 c
0
 c
1
 ... c
n
4
 c
n
2
,
where
 c
 = (
c
0
,c
1
,c
2
,...,c
n
2
,c
n
1
) is the circulant vector.
Definition 1.4.
 A right circulant matrix
 RCIRC 
n
(
g
) with geometric sequence is a matrixof the form
RCIRC 
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
3
ar
n
2
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
......... ... ......
ar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a arar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
a.
.
Definition 1.5.
 A left circulant matrix
 LCIRC 
n
(
g
) with geometric sequence is a matrixof the form
LCIRC 
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
aar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a ar
......... ... ......
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
4
ar
n
2
.
.
The right and left circulant matrices has the following relationship:
LCIRC 
n
(
c
) = Π
RCIRC 
n
(
c
)
.
where Π =
1
 O
1
O
2
 ˜
n
1
 with ˜
n
1
 =
0 0
 ...
 0 10 0
 ...
 1 0...... ... ......0 1
 ...
 0 01 0
 ...
 0 0
,
 O
1
 = (0 0 0
 ...
 0) and
O
2
 =
 O
1
 .
 
90
 A. C. F. Bueno No. 4
Clearly, the terms of 
 {
SCGDS 
(
n
)
}
 are just the determinants of 
 LCIRC 
n
(
g
). Now, for therest of this paper, let
 |
A
|
 be the notation for the determinant of a matrix
 A
. Hence
{
SCGDS 
(
n
)
}
 =
 {|
LCIRC 
1
(
g
)
|
,
|
LCIRC 
2
(
g
)
|
,
|
LCIRC 
3
(
g
)
|
,...
}
.
§
2. Preliminary results
Lemma 2.1.
|
RCIRC 
n
(
g
)
|
 =
 a
n
(1
 −
r
n
)
n
1
.
Proof.
RCIRC 
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
3
ar
n
2
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
......... ... ......
ar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a arar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
a
=
 a
1
 r r
2
... r
n
2
r
n
1
r
n
1
1
 r ... r
n
3
r
n
2
r
n
2
r
n
1
1
 ... r
n
4
r
n
3
......... ... ......
r
2
r
3
r
4
...
 1
 rr r
2
r
3
... r
n
1
1
.
.
By applying the row operations
 −
r
n
k
R
1
 +
R
k
+1
 →
 R
k
+1
 where
 k
 = 1
,
 2
,
 3
,...,n
 1
,RCIRC 
n
(
g
)
 ∼
 a
1
 r r
2
... r
n
2
r
n
1
0
 
(
r
n
 1)
 
r
(
r
n
 1)
 ...
 
r
n
3
(
r
n
 1)
 
r
n
2
(
r
n
 1)0 0
 
(
r
n
 1)
 ...
 
r
n
4
(
r
n
 1)
 
r
n
3
(
r
n
 1)......... ... ......0 0 0
 ...
 
(
r
n
 1)
 
r
(
r
n
 1)0 0 0
 ...
 0
 
(
r
n
 1)
.
Since
 |
cA
|
 =
 c
n
|
A
|
 and its row equivalent matrix is a lower traingular matrix it follows that
|
RCIRC 
n
(
g
)
|
 =
 a
n
(1
 −
r
n
)
n
1
.
Lemma 2.2.
|
Π
|
 = (
1)
n
12
 
,
where
 
x
 is the floor function.
Proof.
 Case 1:
 n
 = 1
,
2
,
|
Π
|
 =
 |
n
|
 = 1
.

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