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Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences

Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences

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In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
was introduced and a formula for its nth term was obtained using the concept of right and left circulant matrices.
In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
was introduced and a formula for its nth term was obtained using the concept of right and left circulant matrices.

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04/08/2014

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Scientia Magna
Vol. 8 (2012), No. 4, 88-91
Smarandache cyclicgeometric determinant sequences
A. C. F. BuenoDepartment of Mathematics and Physics, Central Luzon State University,Science City of Mu˜noz 3120, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Abstract
In this paper, the concept of Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequencewas introduced and a formula for its
n
th
term was obtained using the concept of right andleft circulant matrices.
Keywords
Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence, determinant, right circulan-t matrix, left circulant matrix.
§
1. Introduction and preliminaries
Majumdar
[1]
gave the formula for
n
th
term of the following sequences: Smarandache cyclicnatural determinant sequence, Smarandache cyclic arithmetic determinant sequence, Smaran-dache bisymmetric natural determinant sequence and Smarandache bisymmetric arithmeticdeterminant sequence.
Deﬁnition 1.1.
A Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequence
{
SCGDS
(
n
)
}
isa sequence of the form
{
SCGDS
(
n
)
}
=
|
a
|
,
a arar a
,
a ar ar
2
ar ar
2
aar
2
a ar
,...
.
Deﬁnition 1.2.
A matrix
RCIRC
n
(
c
)
∈
M
nxn
(
R
) is said to be a right circulant matrixif it is of the form
RCIRC
n
(
c
) =
c
0
c
1
c
2
... c
n
2
c
n
1
c
n
1
c
0
c
1
... c
n
3
c
n
2
c
n
2
c
n
1
c
0
... c
n
4
c
n
3
......... ... ......
c
2
c
3
c
4
... c
0
c
1
c
1
c
2
c
3
... c
n
1
c
0
,
where
c
= (
c
0
,c
1
,c
2
,...,c
n
2
,c
n
1
) is the circulant vector.

Vol. 8 Smarandache cyclic geometric determinant sequences
89
Deﬁnition 1.3.
A matrix
LCIRC
n
(
c
)
∈
M
nxn
(
R
) is said to be a leftt circulant matrix if it is of the form
LCIRC
n
(
c
) =
c
0
c
1
c
2
... c
n
2
c
n
1
c
1
c
2
c
3
... c
n
1
c
0
c
2
c
3
c
4
... c
0
c
1
......... ... ......
c
n
2
c
n
1
c
0
... c
n
4
c
n
3
c
n
1
c
0
c
1
... c
n
4
c
n
2
,
where
c
= (
c
0
,c
1
,c
2
,...,c
n
2
,c
n
1
) is the circulant vector.
Deﬁnition 1.4.
A right circulant matrix
RCIRC
n
(
g
) with geometric sequence is a matrixof the form
RCIRC
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
3
ar
n
2
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
......... ... ......
ar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a arar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
a.
.
Deﬁnition 1.5.
A left circulant matrix
LCIRC
n
(
g
) with geometric sequence is a matrixof the form
LCIRC
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
aar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a ar
......... ... ......
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
4
ar
n
2
.
.
The right and left circulant matrices has the following relationship:
LCIRC
n
(
c
) = Π
RCIRC
n
(
c
)
.
where Π =
1
O
1
O
2
˜
n
1
with ˜
n
1
=
0 0
...
0 10 0
...
1 0...... ... ......0 1
...
0 01 0
...
0 0
,
O
1
= (0 0 0
...
0) and
O
2
=
O
1
.

90
A. C. F. Bueno No. 4
Clearly, the terms of
{
SCGDS
(
n
)
}
are just the determinants of
LCIRC
n
(
g
). Now, for therest of this paper, let
|
A
|
be the notation for the determinant of a matrix
A
. Hence
{
SCGDS
(
n
)
}
=
{|
LCIRC
1
(
g
)
|
,
|
LCIRC
2
(
g
)
|
,
|
LCIRC
3
(
g
)
|
,...
}
.
§
2. Preliminary results
Lemma 2.1.
|
RCIRC
n
(
g
)
|
=
a
n
(1
−
r
n
)
n
1
.
Proof.
RCIRC
n
(
g
) =
a ar ar
2
... ar
n
2
ar
n
1
ar
n
1
a ar ... ar
n
3
ar
n
2
ar
n
2
ar
n
1
a ... ar
n
4
ar
n
3
......... ... ......
ar
2
ar
3
ar
4
... a arar ar
2
ar
3
... ar
n
1
a
=
a
1
r r
2
... r
n
2
r
n
1
r
n
1
1
r ... r
n
3
r
n
2
r
n
2
r
n
1
1
... r
n
4
r
n
3
......... ... ......
r
2
r
3
r
4
...
1
rr r
2
r
3
... r
n
1
1
.
.
By applying the row operations
−
r
n
k
R
1
+
R
k
+1
→
R
k
+1
where
k
= 1
,
2
,
3
,...,n
1
,RCIRC
n
(
g
)
∼
a
1
r r
2
... r
n
2
r
n
1
0

(
r
n
1)

r
(
r
n
1)
...

r
n
3
(
r
n
1)

r
n
2
(
r
n
1)0 0

(
r
n
1)
...

r
n
4
(
r
n
1)

r
n
3
(
r
n
1)......... ... ......0 0 0
...

(
r
n
1)

r
(
r
n
1)0 0 0
...
0

(
r
n
1)
.
Since
|
cA
|
=
c
n
|
A
|
and its row equivalent matrix is a lower traingular matrix it follows that
|
RCIRC
n
(
g
)
|
=
a
n
(1
−
r
n
)
n
1
.
Lemma 2.2.
|
Π
|
= (
1)
n
12

,
where

x
is the ﬂoor function.
Proof.
Case 1:
n
= 1
,
2
,
|
Π
|
=
|
n
|
= 1
.