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Anabasis Xenophon

Anabasis Xenophon



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Published by hulfra
xenophon leading retreat of greek army from persia
xenophon leading retreat of greek army from persia

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Published by: hulfra on Feb 22, 2008
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1******The Project Gutenberg Etext of Anabasis by Xenophon******Translation by H. G. Dakyns#2 in our series of XenophonEtext prepared by John Bickers, jbickers@templar.actrix.gen.nz.ANABASISBy XenophonTranslation by H. G. DakynsDedicated ToRev. B. Jowett, M.A.Master of Balliol CollegeRegius Professor of Greek in the University of OxfordXenophon the Athenian was born 431 B.C. He was a pupil of Socrates. He marched with the Spartans,and was exiled from Athens. Sparta gave him landand property in Scillus, where he lived for manyyears before having to move once more, to settlein Corinth. He died in 354 B.C.The Anabasis is his story of the march to Persiato aid Cyrus, who enlisted Greek help to try andtake the throne from Artaxerxes, and the ensuingreturn of the Greeks, in which Xenophon played aleading role. This occurred between 401 B.C. andMarch 399 B.C.PREPARER'S NOTE1 Of 185
2This was typed from Dakyns' series, "The Works of Xenophon," afour-volume set. The complete list of Xenophon's works (thoughthere is doubt about some of these) is:Work Number of booksThe Anabasis 7The Hellenica 7The Cyropaedia 8The Memorabilia 4The Symposium 1The Economist 1On Horsemanship 1The Sportsman 1The Cavalry General 1The Apology 1On Revenues 1The Hiero 1The Agesilaus 1The Polity of the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians 2Text in brackets "{}" is my transliteration of Greek text intoEnglish using an Oxford English Dictionary alphabet table. Thediacritical marks have been lost.ANABASISBYXENOPHONANABASISBOOK I2 Of 185
3Darius and Parysatis had two sons: the elder was named Artaxerxes, and 1the younger Cyrus. Now, as Darius lay sick and felt that the end of life drew near, he wished both his sons to be with him. The elder, asit chanced, was already there, but Cyrus he must needs send for fromthe province over which he had made him satrap, having appointed himgeneral moreover of all the forces that muster in the plain of theCastolus. Thus Cyrus went up, taking with him Tissaphernes as hisfriend, and accompanied also by a body of Hellenes, three hundredheavy armed men, under the command of Xenias the Parrhasian[1].[1] Parrhasia, a district and town in the south-west of Arcadia. Now when Darius was dead, and Artaxerxes was established in thekingdom, Tissaphernes brought slanderous accusations against Cyrus before his brother, the king, of harbouring designs against him. AndArtaxerxes, listening to the words of Tissaphernes, laid hands uponCyrus, desiring to put him to death; but his mother made intercessionfor him, and sent him back again in safety to his province. He then,having so escaped through peril and dishonour, fell to considering,not only how he might avoid ever again being in his brother's power, but how, if possible, he might become king in his stead. Parysatis,his mother, was his first resource; for she had more love for Cyrusthan for Artaxerxes upon his throne. Moreover Cyrus's behaviour towards all who came to him from the king's court was such that, whenhe sent them away again, they were better friends to himself than to 5the king his brother. Nor did he neglect the barbarians in his ownservice; but trained them, at once to be capable as warriors anddevoted adherents of himself. Lastly, he began collecting his Hellenicarmament, but with the utmost secrecy, so that he might take the kingas far as might be at unawares.The manner in which he contrived the levying of the troops was asfollows: First, he sent orders to the commandants of garrisons in thecities (so held by him), bidding them to get together as large a bodyof picked Peloponnesian troops as they severally were able, on the plea that Tissaphernes was plotting against their cities; and trulythese cities of Ionia had originally belonged to Tissaphernes, beinggiven to him by the king; but at this time, with the exception of Miletus, they had all revolted to Cyrus. In Miletus, Tissaphernes,having become aware of similar designs, had forestalled theconspirators by putting some to death and banishing the remainder.Cyrus, on his side, welcomed these fugitives, and having collected anarmy, laid siege to Miletus by sea and land, endeavouring to reinstatethe exiles; and this gave him another pretext for collecting an3 Of 185

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