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Research on Phonological Awareness

Research on Phonological Awareness

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Published by torpedu
Phonology, phonetics, remedial, arts, language
Phonology, phonetics, remedial, arts, language

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Published by: torpedu on Oct 23, 2009
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05/24/2013

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Chapter IThe Problem and Its Background
This chapter focuses on the general problem of the study and the specific issues addressed to the problem. Heading such as theoretical conceptual framework of the study, statement of assumptions andhypothesis, significance of the study and definition of terms are also presented.
Rationale
The lack of phonemic awareness seems to be a major obstacle to reading acquisition. Childrenwho are not able to segments words and syllables into phonemes. Consequently, they do not develop todecode single words accurately and fluently, an ability that is the distinguishing characteristics of  persons with reading disabilities.Some pupils in the elementary grades of Mabolo Christian Academy, ages 7-12 have reading problems severe enough to hinder their enjoyment of reading. These problems are generally notdevelopmental and do not diminish over time, but will persist into adulthood without appropriateintervention. Phonological errors of the child may need more attention through speech remediation thatwould enhance the ability of the child to produce the correct sound patterns of the word. A speechremediation program can be planned and implemented for the improvement of phonemic awareness of the child.Hence the most reliable indicator of a reading disability is an ability to decode single word.According to
Lyon
(1994), the best way to determine if this inability is unexpected is to compare the performance of a child with that of other children his or her age and compare the reading ability toacademic performance in other domains (e.g., listen comprehension, verbal expression, writtenexpression)
 
Theoretical- Conceptual framework 
This study is supported with seven theories. The first theory is the
Natural Phonology Theory
,
( Donegan & Stampe, 1979; Stampe, 1979)
. According to this theory, phonological processesdescribed phonetically motivated and natural patterns of speech production. Supporting evidence for natural theory comes from examples of evolutionary language change and from descriptions of soundschange in children’s developing phonological systems.The theory of 
Articulatory Phonology
(AP) claims not just that linguistic units are compatiblewith the output system (vocal tract),but also that their identity is maintained in production and perceived as such by the listeners.
Gildeas
analysis (1997) that phonological theory develops in such fashion provides us with anexciting new insight into child language acquisition. This insight depends on the universally recognizedand that is, the particular history of phonological theory exactly parallels that child’s development of  phonological theories. Just as linguist constantly turn to new theories as a way of dealing with bizarrenew data, so do small children progress along a genetically pre-programmed path as they learn tomanipulate oral gestures and auditory input.The next theory is the
Whole Language Approach (Goodman, 1967).
He claimed that beginning readers needed little direct instruction to decode the letters and sounds of the language. He believed that learners have the ability to decode the letters, syllables, words and phrases as they readmeaningful texts by making inferences about the linguistics data.We also have
Phonics Approach
which referred to as a skills-based approach, point to researchshowing that children benefit from direct instruction about the letters, syllables, and correspondingsounds of English
(Rose, 2006; Johnson and Watson, 2003).
It also claims that reading instructionshould start with the most basic components of words which are the letters of the alphabet and phonemes (speech sounds). As they practice, students blend individual sound into words and areultimately able to recognize them in a reading text.
 
Kameenui(1995)
introduced
five characteristics to make a word easier or more difficult.
These are:1.
The size of the phonological unit
(e.g. it is easier to break sentences into words and words intosyllables than to break syllables into phonemes).2.
The number of phonemes in the word
( e.g. it is easier to break phonemically short wordssuch as no, see, and cap than snort, sleep or scrap)3.
Phoneme position in words
(e.g. initial consonants are easier than final consonants and middleconsonants are more difficult).4.
Phonological properties of words
(e.g. constituent such as /s/ and /m/ are easier than very brief sounds such as /t/.5.
Phonological awareness challenges
(e.g. rhyming and initial phoneme identification are easier than blending and segmenting).The last theory is the
(IPA) International Phonetic Alphabet.
It attempts to provide a symbolfor every sound of every language. The advantage of the IPA is that it is widely studied and used,transcription using IPA can be interpreted by many readers. Phonology plays an important role inlearning for it is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language. Theterm “phonology” was used in the linguistics of a greater part of the 20
th
century as a cover term uniting phonemics and phonetics. An important part of traditional form of phonology has been studying whichsound can be grouped into distinctive phonemes within a language.Based on these experts contentious, this study aimed to address the phonological structure of theelementary grades of 
Mabolo Christian Academy
and that the findings of this study would serve asthe basis in understanding and selected the means for remedial instructions for reading competence.
 

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