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Table Of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Narrative Texts
1.2 The Art of Storytelling and the Acquisition of Narratives
1.3 Narratives as Socially Situated Events
CHAPTER 2: SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF NARRATIVE
2.1 Preliminary Remarks
2.2 Elements of a Narrative Theory
2.3 Story Grammars
2.4 Evaluation and the Work of Labov
2.4.1 The Structure of the Narrative Clause
2.4.2 Evaluation in Narrative
2.4.3 Types of Evaluation
2.4.4 Evaluative Devices and the Labov Model
2.4.5 A Justification for the Approach
2.5 Aspects of Sequencing and Plot Construction
2.6 Summary
CHAPTER 3: HOW CHILDREN LEARN THE ART OF STORYTELLING
3.1 Storytelling and Tradition
3.2 Experimental Studies of Narrative Ability in Children
3.3 The Story as a Speech Event
3.4 Pictorial and Verbal Elements in Storybooks
3.5 The Story as a Set of Stanzas
3.6 The Acquisition and Use of “Prefabricated Patterns”
3.6.1 Possible Sources of “Prefabricated Patterns”
3.6.2 Stages, Strategies and Individual Differences
3.6.3 Nativelike Selection and Nativelike Fluency
3.6.3.1 Selection
3.6.3.2 Fluency
3.6.3.3 Memorized Sequences
3.7 Spoken and Written Discourse: Similarities and Differences
3.7.1 Spoken and Written Stories
3.7.2 Oral and Literate Discourse Styles
3.7.2.1 Intraclausal Complements: Prepositional Phrases
3.7.2.2 Interclausal Complements and Participant Reference
3.7.2.3 Interclausal Connectives and Causal Relations
3.7.2.4 Agent Focus
3.8 Implications for Second Language Acquisition
3.8.1 Home and Community Background
3.9 Summary
CHAPTER 4: EVALUATION IN L2 NARRATIVE PRODUCTIONS
4.1 Narrative Skills and Evaluation
4.2 Methodology
4.2.1 The Subjects
4.2.2 Materials and Procedure
4.2.3 Analysis of the Narrative Data
4.2.4 Transcription and Editing of the Data
4.2.5 Additions and Modifications to Labov’s Evaluative Categories
4.3 An Example from the Data
4.4 A General Discussion of the Findings
4.5 Evaluative Devices Preferred by Young Speakers
4.6 Intensifiers and Evaluative Syntax
4.7 Summary
CHAPTER 5: EVALUATION AND RELATED ISSUES
5.1 Evaluation in the Wider Context
5.2 Plot Construction and Errors, and their Interrelationship with Evaluation
5.2.1 Plot Construction
5.2.2 Errors
5.3 L1 and L2 Narratives Compared
5.4 L1 and L2 Discourse Errors
5.4.1 An Error Count of L1 and L2 Errors in Story A
5.4.2 Discourse Errors
5.4.2.1 Errors in the Orientation Section
5.4.2.2 Narrative Section
5.4.2.3 Clausal Connectives
5.4.2.4 Participant Reference
5.4.2.5 Tense-Aspect Relations
5.5 Summary
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Intensifiers
6.3 Expressive Phonology
6.3.1 Length
6.3.2 Loudness
6.3.3 Pitch
6.3.4 The Transcription of the Data
6.3.6 A Characterization of the Speech Styles of the Eight Subjects
6.3.7 The Evaluative Use of Prosodic Features
6.3.8 The Acquisition of Intonation
6.4 Direct Speech Data
6.5 Interjections, Exclamations, and Direct Address
6.5.1 The Use of “Oh!”
6.5.2 Affirmation and Denial
6.6 Lexical Intensifiers and Other Lexical Items
6.7 Foregrounding
6.8 Quantifiers
6.9 Repetitions
6.10 Single Appositives
6.11 Use of the First Language
6.12 Summary
7.1 The Notion of Syntactic Complexity
7.2 Comparators
7.2.1 Negatives
7.2.2 Modals, Futures and Quasimodals
7.2.3 Questions
7.2.4 Imperatives
7.2.5 Or-clauses
7.3.1 Progressive Be...ing
7.3.2 Right-hand Participles and Embedding
7.3.3 Compound Phrases
7.3.4 Double and Multiple Attributives
7.3.5 Optional Prepositional Phrases
7.3.6 Double Appositives
7.4 Explicatives
7.4.1 Causal Constructions
7.4.2 Simple Qualifications
7.4.3 Clarifications
7.5 External Evaluation
7.5.1 Embedded Orientation
7.5.2 Evaluative Action
7.5.3 Suspension of the Action
7.6 Summary
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUDING ISSUES
8.1 The Narrative Task
8.1.1 Interactive Collaborative/Prompted Discourse versus Monologue
8.1.2 Retelling versus Performance
8.1.3 The Relationship between Story Structure and Story Content
8.2 Evaluation as an Indicator of L2 Development
8.2.1 Evaluation, Subordination and Syntactic Complexity
8.2.2 Evaluation and Overall Coherence
8.2.3 The Problem of L2 Syntax
8.2.4 L2 Narrative Development and L2 Aquisition
8.2.5 L1 and L2 Narratives
8.3 An Appraisal of Labov’s Model and His Notion of Evaluation
8.3.1 Evaluation as a Measure of Narrative Ability
8.3.2 “Good” and “Bad” Stories
BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF CHILDREN’S BOOKS REFERRED TO IN CHAPTER THREE
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Mason Ruth_Use of Evaluative Devices

Mason Ruth_Use of Evaluative Devices

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Published by eskimo_friend
The narrative skills of young second-language learners have not attracted much attention
from researchers in the field of second language acquisition. This study describes, and
seeks to explain, some of the regularities of L2 narrative development and, also, some of
the inherent variability which is found in any corpus of L2 performance data.
The focus of enquiry is Labov’s model of narrative structure and the distinction made
between referential and evaluative functions in narrative, especially the phonological,
lexical, and syntactic devices young L2 learners use to carry out those functions of moving
the plot-line forward and articulating the narrative point. The particular focus is evaluation,
but a somewhat broader view of the notion is taken than that of Labov (1972a) and the
study draws on, among others, the work of Polyani (1981a), Tannen (1982b), Wolfson
(1982), and for child language, Bamberg and Damrad-Frye (1991).
The data consist of 45 retellings of six model stories by eight Panjabi-speaking pupils aged
5 years 7 months to 7 years 9 months. It is claimed that the majority of these are uniquely
the child-narrators’ own productions, differing from the originals in interesting and creative
ways, particularly in the selection of evaluation devices; the best count as true
performances.
After a brief introduction, chapters 2 and 3 deal with theories of narrative, a selective
discussion of evaluation in narrative, and the emergence of narrative skills. Chapters 4 and
5 describe the collection and analysis of the data, and report on the overall findings,
correlating evaluation with other indicators of storytelling ability and comparing the L2
narratives with L1 productions. Chapters 6 and 7 present detailed accounts, with examples,
of all devices reported, and chapter 8 presents the conclusions and an appraisal of the
model
The narrative skills of young second-language learners have not attracted much attention
from researchers in the field of second language acquisition. This study describes, and
seeks to explain, some of the regularities of L2 narrative development and, also, some of
the inherent variability which is found in any corpus of L2 performance data.
The focus of enquiry is Labov’s model of narrative structure and the distinction made
between referential and evaluative functions in narrative, especially the phonological,
lexical, and syntactic devices young L2 learners use to carry out those functions of moving
the plot-line forward and articulating the narrative point. The particular focus is evaluation,
but a somewhat broader view of the notion is taken than that of Labov (1972a) and the
study draws on, among others, the work of Polyani (1981a), Tannen (1982b), Wolfson
(1982), and for child language, Bamberg and Damrad-Frye (1991).
The data consist of 45 retellings of six model stories by eight Panjabi-speaking pupils aged
5 years 7 months to 7 years 9 months. It is claimed that the majority of these are uniquely
the child-narrators’ own productions, differing from the originals in interesting and creative
ways, particularly in the selection of evaluation devices; the best count as true
performances.
After a brief introduction, chapters 2 and 3 deal with theories of narrative, a selective
discussion of evaluation in narrative, and the emergence of narrative skills. Chapters 4 and
5 describe the collection and analysis of the data, and report on the overall findings,
correlating evaluation with other indicators of storytelling ability and comparing the L2
narratives with L1 productions. Chapters 6 and 7 present detailed accounts, with examples,
of all devices reported, and chapter 8 presents the conclusions and an appraisal of the
model

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Published by: eskimo_friend on Mar 29, 2014
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