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Computer Organization & Articture No. 11 from APCOMS

Computer Organization & Articture No. 11 from APCOMS

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12/08/2013

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COA by Athar Mohsin
Lecture 12Instruction set architecture
 
COA by Athar Mohsin
Instruction Formats
Instruction sets are differentiated by the following:
Number of bits per instruction.Stack-based or register-based.Number of operands per instruction.Operand location.Types of operations.Type and size of operands.
Instruction set architectures are measured according to:
Main memory space occupied by a program.Instruction complexity.Instruction length (in bits).Total number of instructions in the instruction set.
 
COA by Athar Mohsin
Instruction Formats
In designing an instruction set, consideration is given to:Instruction length.
 –Whether short, long, or variable.
Number of operands.Number of addressable registers.Memory organization.
 –Whether byte- or word addressable.
Addressing modes.
 –Choose any or all: direct, indirect or indexed.
Byte ordering, or 
endianness
, is another major architecturalconsideration.If we have a two-byte integer, the integer may be stored so that theleast significant byte is followed by the most significant byte or viceversa.
 –In
little endian
machines,
 
the least significant byte is followed by themost significant byte. –
Big endian
machines store the most significant byte first (at the lower address).

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