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Literature Review on Media Violence a Modern Social Violence

Literature Review on Media Violence a Modern Social Violence

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Published by David G. Caban

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Published by: David G. Caban on Oct 24, 2009
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Media Violence and Children Aggression 1
Literature Review on Media Violence: A Modern Social ViolenceByDavid G. Caban, MBA
AbstractMedia violence affects children by instilling values and belief system resulting in developingaggressive and-or violent cultures within the environment. Children deriving from all different backgroundsand cultures are affected by acts of media violence, especially, when they (children) are excessivelyexposed to violence (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podalski and Eron, 2003; Murray, 2001). Does mediaviolence constitute violence in home? If not, then why do adults, such as, parents, older siblings and older family members and friends condone it? An old saying, “actions speak louder than words”.This analysis focuses on several types of variables interrelating with violence, such as, childrendiagnosis with disruptive behavior disorders and normal children; just to name a few, and what earlier researchers failed to disclose. Children with behavior disorders tend to react to violence much differentlythan normal children. And, what earlier researchers failed too mentioned or analyzed had any of their sample had children or participants with any type of behavior or mental disorders? If so, then their resultsmay NOT be accurate.LITERATURE REVIEWIntroduction to Literature ReviewViolent television has similar affects of non-mediated, direct and environmental influences of approximately the same magnitude, as with family relationship (Grimes, Bergen, Nichols, Vernberg andFonagy, 2004, p. 154). In addition, neighborhood and school experiences are becoming more similar totelevision and-or other media entertainment, which interacts with groups of children, adolescents includedwith a segment of the population diagnosis with different types of psychological disorders, such as,Disruptive Behavior Disorder and other types of psychological disorders (Grimes, Bergen, Nichols,Vernberg and Fonagy, 2004, p. 154).Therefore, children who are exposed to violent neighborhoods, community and family homes are just as similar as exposed to media violence (Grimes, Bergen, Nichols, Vernberg and Fonagy, 2004;Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski and Eron, 2003, p. 203). The phenomenal aspect of the relationship between violence such as media violence within the home and the family is known as the third variable,which is a phenomenal, because researcher are not certain what influences parents to allow their children toview violence (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski and Eron, 2003). In other words, allowing violence toenter the home is described as condoning violence within a supposed safe environment for children andadolescents (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski and Eron, 2003).There are several variables to explore in the phenomenon of violence entering the home, such as,cultural and habits; for example, children exposed to media violence in the home, and-or does violencealready exist in the home. If so, then the likelihood of the community would stem a higher probability of 
 
Media Violence and Children Aggression 2 becoming more accessible to other facets of violence (Green & Krcmar, 2005). Because of the fact violenceis a part of their culture; therefore, media violence becomes a genre, which is a reflection of their environment (Green & Krcmar, 2005). In addition, considering children who are suffering from behavior disorders are more than likely to be permanently harmed psychologically, as a result, to excessive violence(Grimes, Bergen, Nichols, Vernberg and Fonagy, 2004, p. 155). Also, media violence such as violent videogames would reinforce the issue.The information process theory suggested as a primary conceptual frameworks, which is appliedto the affects of viewing media violence within the home, and also suggests scripts portrayed through themedia characters are typically learned, because to children and adolescents they are observing role models(Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 326). Therefore, as children, adolescents and young adults observed (Learn)these media role models, and the information (messages or educational) portrayed from these mediacharacters becomes process; it is encoded and stored into memory to be utilized as a guide for future behavior (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 326).Furthermore, does this constitute violence within the home, which could affect children andteenage development? Because, media violence is considered both as social role models, as well asreinforcement models for children, adolescents and adults to observe and learn. And, as a result, wouldcultivate the minds of children, because the children’s mind is still within the developmental phases,whereas, adult mind is already developed; therefore, would react to aggressive and violent behavior differently as children (Huesmann et al., 2003).The information process theory, which is derived from both scriptive and schematic theory,suggests as adults we teach children aggressive and violent behavior through the means of the media(Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 326; Huesmann et al., 2003).Theoretical Framework 
 Physical and social aggression
Physical and social aggression tends to display in both short and long term affects, especiallywhile children are exposed to media violence, which includes interacting with violent video games (Coyne& Archer, 2005, p. 324). For example, in short term affects children would react to a high physiologicalarousal, which affects the stimulation of aggressive responses; therefore, related information coming fromthe media can be inhibited in memory (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 324). Because of the fact childrenexposed to media violence such as, Spiderman and Mean Girls the aggressive behavior, which is the physiological arousal, tend to enhance of becoming desensitize towards aggressive and violent behavior (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 324). As a result, it can potentially enhance into a violent behavior, becausechildren perception of violence is different in comparison to adults (Huesmann et al., 2003). Furthermore,the character portrayal of both Spiderman and Mean Girls mirror real life events in high school.One of the primary reasons is because children brains are still within the development process,whereas, adults brain is already fully developed (Cervone, 2005).Children perception to violence is their perception of their environment, which in most cases iseither within their home or other environment incorporating a social surroundings that influencesaggressive and violent behavior (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 325). Therefore, through observation childrenwould learn, as a result, it becomes a social learning process and a reinforcement model because itinfluences aggressive and violent behavior (Bandura, 2001)Aggression portrayed through the media is a concept of observation; therefore, it becomes a sociallearning model, which is design to learn with the intent for socio development (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p.325; Gonzalez et al., 2004).In the movie called Mean Girls characters portrayed mainly in social aggression, which is anindirect aggression, which is a incorporating design to intentionally impose harm on others; for example,imposing harm on others social status and intellect (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 324; Horn, 2004; Huesmannet al., 2003). Throughout the movie it portrayed other types of social aggression such as, relational and peer aggression, which is the type of social aggression of manipulating others through covert relations with theintent to manipulate others for self gain (Coyne & Archer, 2005, p. 324-326). Although, commonly peopleare unaware of what their viewing, because as some suggested it is a reflection of their environment withintheir school settings (Coyne & Archer, 2005; Green & Krcmar, 2004). In other words, the movie is areflection of their environment; therefore, what is viewed is also a reality (Borden & Horowitz, 2002;
 
Media Violence and Children Aggression 3Coyne & Archer, 2005). Which is a phenomenon described as the third variable, which is based on the phenomenological concept suggesting of several variables that can potentially explain why adults wouldallow children to become exposed to violence (Huesmann et al., 2003, p. 203).Social Cognitive TheoryThe social cognitive approach is the emotional arousal of children thought process as it relates totheir environment (Murray, 2001). The problem that has daunted society for several decades is the rolemodel of the mass media, but what has become the problematic-issue is the continual enhancement of newer media products such as, the internet, violent video program, which display violent graphics thatenhances children’s exposure to violence (Funk et al., 2003; Huesmann et al., 2003). This tends to havelasting influencing affects that remain within children’s thoughts, even during early adulthood (Bandura,2001; Murray, 2001).Cognitive approach is the perception of one’s environment (Macionis, 2000). Social cognitive isthe perception how one’s perceive their social environment (Bandura, 2001). However, media violencewould tend to become a role model that display influencing posit, which influences children’s thoughts;and as a result, instill a belief system, which enhances children’s cognition within their environment(Macionis, 2000; Murray, 2001). Belief system is what constructs society cultures, and way of life.Therefore, within an electrified society such as, the western world the mass media is a cultural practice,which expresses our cultural way of living (Brown et al., 2005). For instance, children programming,Disney Movies, cartoon network and other children and adult sit-coms display closer resemblances of everyday social interactions (Chory-Assad, 2003).Children’s influential social characteristics existing within the environment such as, culturalattitudes, social behavior, including violent behavior and acts of aggression become a part of their socialidentity. This is a result of the continual exposure to violence (Funk et al., 2003). In other words, bothsocial and media tend to correlate, which means that media violence becomes the influential mechanism(reinforcement model) that reflects society’s attitude and social behavior (Green & Krcmar, 2005).Therefore, media violence may not have a causal-affect that stimulates aggression, but rather acorrelational-affect (Brown et al., 2005). Media violence and real-life experience of violence tend tocorrelate, especially, while the media influences society to perceive what is within their environment(Murray, 2001). For instance, events such as wars, news media that may present mis and disinformation,and other media outlets that displayed violent acts of aggression.In addition, children programming that display acts of aggressive and violent behavior thatcaptures the minds of children, therefore, children would develop a fantasy perception within their environment, because children stem to be the targeting audience to influence attitude and social behavior (Chory-Assad, 2003).Theoretical debateA laboratory study revealed that children that suffer from disruptive behavior disorder would bemore affected to media violence than normal children (Grimes et al., 2004, p. 155). How can this bedetermined? Through careful evaluation between two variables that revealed reliability, media violence,and children diagnosis with disruptive behavior disorder. Children with DBD process certain social cuesdifferently than normal children (Grimes et al., 2004p. 155). For example, DBD children would displayless arousal and physiological reactivity; such as, decrease heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressureswere normal. In addition, they displayed more angry facial expression, and acted out more aggressivelythan normal children (Grimes et al., 2004, p. 158-159).In fact, normal children would react differently, for instance, expressing more emotional distress,high systolic and diastolic blood pressure resulting having a higher heart rate (Grimes et al., 2004, p. 159).Also, normal children would display lessor aggressive behavior than children diagnosis with disruptive behavior disorder (Grimes et al., 2004). Grimes et al., (2004) had also suggested that while children wereviewing a horror film normal children displayed lessor aggressive behavior, which conclude that childrenexposed to media violence, especially normal children could not have any causal affect that wouldstimulate aggression in children (Grimes et al., 2004, p. 159). Unless, children with the predisposition of violence and pre-existing biopsychosocial variables, which may influence violent behavior (Grimes et al.,

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