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08 Cranio Development IV

08 Cranio Development IV

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Published by: NYUCD17 on Mar 30, 2014
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 1 Transcribed by Erica Manion 3.27.14 Craniofacial Biology Lecture 8
Prenatal Craniofacial Development IV
 by Dr. Wishe
Slide set: 2014 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 3 3-20 post.ppt [Slide 18]
 L FIG. 17.15 (18.15) SPINAL BIFIDA 11
Dr. Wishe:
Good morning. So yesterday we had gotten to the point in our discussion of defects that can occur in terms of the brains in essence. Today we are going to continue that discussion and turn to the area of the spinal cord. Keep in mind that the neural tube gave rise to the whole central nervous system. In the head region the brain develops. Below the head you get the spinal cord forming and any defects that occur in the spinal cord are known as neural tube defects, and they can be moderate to severe. And these type
of defects are generally referred to as spina bifida. You’ll see the word on the screen, spina bifida occulta, and that’s generally less of a defect than spina bifida cystica. So spina bifida
occulta, essentially you have one vertebra being effected. And in this picture (Image A)
you’ll see a vertebra with the transverse
and here’s
 your vertebral processes, your
arch. And you’ll notice th
at the two sides are not fused together. Therefore in this part of the region there is no bone protecting the spinal cord. About ten percent of the population has this condition and it usually effects only one vertebra. Homework assignment, of course you need two people to do the homework assignment, is just take your finger, run it down the
vertebral column, you’ll find all of a sudden the finger goes in
and it comes out, and it goes in because there is no bone over here protecting the spinal cord. And for some reason, oh by the way that blue indentation is called a dimple, sort of cute term. And in that particular area you get hairs developing. For whatever reason I have
no idea. As I see people reaching behind them to find if they have it or not. But that’s not a
bad type of condition. Now you can have neural tube defects where your survival rate is really zip. (Image B) We
saw this particular name (underlined “Meningocele) in connection with the skull where essentially you had a little opening. By the way
cele” means opening. And when you see the word or prefix “Mening
“ you know it’
s referring to the meninges covering the neural
components. So in essence what you’re seeing here, the red region, are really the meninges
which are protruding from the opening. Going a little bit later on, next picture (Image C), meningomyelocele, i
t’s not
only the meninges but the actual neural tissue, the
spinal cord that’s protruding throug
h this opening. There are no ventricles associated with the spinal cord, but you still have cerebral spinal fluid associated with the spinal cord. And they don
’t seem to give that a separate
term by inserting the word hydro which means fluid. Then there are two take offs of these neural tube defects which are much more serious than what we see in picture A. And I love the name, Rachischisis. If you recall what normally happens, is that you get two neural folds forming like this, the folds come together, join. And this region, which is your potential neural tube, seals up, and eventually you get a
 2 circle in here representing that neural tube. Well in picture D, y
ou’re getting the
 beginning of the formation of two folds, but that 
’s’ where it stops.
So you don’t get a fusion of the two folds, and you don’t get a neural tube.
 In E, which has the same name, a single neural fold appears but not two. So again you wind up with the same condition. Absence of an actual neural tube. Whenever you listen to the news, watch TV, whatever, sooner or later
you’re going to come across the discussion of
folic acid. And Dr. Lai mentioned that in his discussion of the CCP. Giving folic acid to pregnant women really helps reduce the percentage of neural tube defects. He was talking about it in terms of clefts of the face where he mentioned there is a 50% reduction in the clefts. But the same thing applies to the neural tube. Folic acid reduces these type of neural
tube defects by at least, let’s say, 33%. Certain vitamins besides folic acid also help, and on
the same side you have to be careful. Something like vitamin A tends to promote the exact opposite effect and increases your neural tube defects. [Slide 19]
 ED. Here we have a typical example of your spina bifida. And you can see it right down here. Its hard to tell from this picture how many vertebra were involved.
And I don’t really see
anything protruding from this area. So this is a little bit less severe neural tube defect than what we saw on the previous page, except for the fact that a single vertebra might not have the vertebral arches fusing together. [Slide 20]
 ED. Now we are getting in to much more severe type of conditions. And if you look at B first,
it’s a
very large neural tube defect. So the spinal cord is wide open here. And by bringing the two edges of the skin together, t 
hat’s not going to afford
any protection at all. Now people sometimes have a part of the skull removed for some sort of surgery, what have you. And you need the brain protected by something, so some people walk around with these steel plates in their hea
d and that’s protecting the part of the exposed brain.
What they do
in this scenario I’
m not sure. They might have special gizmos where they do insert some sort of neural plate to cover and protect the underlying spinal cord. Now because you have a neura
l tube defect doesn’t mean you must have defects in the brain. And here’s another neural tube defect (
Image A) but this one,
its not that it’s wide open but
the meninges
 the spinal cord is actually pushing out. So that actually finishes our discussion of the nervous system Slide set: 2014 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 4 2-23 post.ppt [Slide 1]
 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 4 2014 And now we are going into a discussion of eye and ear development. [Slide 2]
 3 With regard to the eye I did point out previously with regard to facial development.. oh ok.
That’s not what I want to do. Ah. That’s why. Ok, now I have my pointer.
So the eye actually begins to form completely in a lateral position. And so this is the beginning of the eye (indicated the optic vesicle, Image A)
, and over here you’re getting the
formation of the ear (indicated the Otic vesicle, Image A), which is supposed to be in a lateral position to begin with. So coming off the diencephalon, and that 
’s what you’re seeing in this particular
picture, the diencephalon (Image B).
You’ll find these two structures called optic grooves.
The optic grooves enlarge and spread out and they form this structure known as an optic vesicle (Image C). The optic vesicles expand to the point that they touch the surface ectoderm. What you see in red is neural ectoderm and what you see in blue is actually the ectoderm associated with the formation of the skin. Once these two layers touch each other there
s an inductive effect that takes place. So the presence of the optic vesicle against the surface ectoderm... You have an induction where the red stimulates the blue.
And as a result you’re going to get a thickening of the surface ectoderm.
And this is the thickening (blue part of Image D). And with increased mitotic activity the thickening sort of pushes inward, and once you have a thickening of the ectoderm, we saw that happening with the formation of the nose. The nasal placode
. So we’re going to have a len
s placode and an otic placode. So this structure (indicating the lens placode of Image D) is going to invaginate inward, putting pressure on the optic vesicle. So if you compare diagram C to D, the shape of the optic vesicle
is now changing, and it’
s gone from a somewhat circular structure to something resembling a horseshoe. And this inside layer (indicating the Invaginating optic vesicle of Image D) will get pushed further inward. [Slide 3]
 L17.1 EYE DEVELOPMENT DAY 22 OLDER EDITION And this is just an older version of the same picture. But I put it on because it does show
you an actual slice through, probably, a rodent head (Image D). And it’s also comparing this
picture (Image E) to the overall longitudinal view. So again we have your forebrain, your midbrain (labeled M), and your hindbrain (labeled H). And as soon as you see an opening or a hole (white arrow), you know those are the cerebral ventricles, and there are two of them. And this would be the diencephalon from which these optic grooves really originate. [Slide 4]
 WEEK 6.5 11
 ED. A
t first these pictures are a little confusing so I’m going to draw an additional picture. Let’s see how do I do this now. Not too well done but… This now shows you a C shaped
structure which in essence is this (Image B) and the optic vesicle becomes the C shaped
structure which is now referred to as an optic cup. And with this optic cup you’re going to get two layers, an inner layer and an outer layer. Here’s the inner layer and there’s the
outer layer (indicated on image C). The inner layer is much thicker and that 
s what becomes the retina. The outer layer being much thinner becomes the pigmented layer of the eye. And you still have this little space between the two layers, and i
t’s known as the
intraretinal space. The lens placode which pushed inward, further develops and you get this structure known as the lens vesicle. And when you see the word vesicle there has to be some sort of space as part of the structure. A solid mass is not a vesicle. And what you have developing in this

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