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09: Cranio Development V

09: Cranio Development V

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Published by: NYUCD17 on Mar 30, 2014
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 1 Transcribed by Erica Manion 3.27.14 Craniofacial Biology Lecture 9
Prenatal Craniofacial Development IV and V
 by Dr. Wishe
Slide set: 2014 FACIAL DEVELOPMENT 4 2-23 post.ppt [Slide 12]
Dr. Wishe:
Alright I guess we might as well continue. This is where I left off, before technical difficulties arose. And here we return to our invaginating placode, and what I was about to say before the problem happened, think of these areas as neural folds. And the two neural folds come together and when they do, you get the formation of a neural tube. But here, in terms of the ear, the two folds are coming together and eventually they fuse and you get a structure reminiscent of the neural tube but this is actually the otic vesicle. And
some folks throw in an additional term called the otic pit, that’s sort of like the opening. In addition what’s not shown on diagrams A and B, see these little yellow structures labeled
statoacoustic ganglion? Think back to the formation of the neural tube, we had neural crest
forming. The neural crest sits on top of the neural tube, and here’s your neural tube and here’s your neural crest that are fragments. Well something very similar happens in this
case. The fragmented neural crest that comes off gives rise to the statoacoustic ganglion which is associated with CN VIII. And CN VIII has dual function, one for hearing, and one for balance, equilibrium, if you will. The other thing, this is the pharyngeal area (indicated on Figure B, see image below). And the pharyngeal area seems to be getting larger and larger.
If you use imagination and just follow the sequence of diagrams, you’ll see that this
pharyngeal region comes smack up to this little indentation (in Figure C, see image below) . And this little indentation is really your first pharyngeal cleft. And all the other clefts disappear, because the mesenchyme in arch 2 grows inferiorly and all the other clefts or grooves sort of fuse into a sinus. Now what do
you think this space actually represents? The pouch. So there’s your first
pharyngeal pouch. And where the yellow is joining together with the blue, what structure do you think is going to form over here? Tympanic membrane or ear drum. This part of development of the ear seems to be far away at the moment (Image C otic vesicle), but it will come closer to this region (near the first pharyngeal cleft and pouch) and in essence the ear has an outer ear, a middle ear, and an inner ear. This otic vesicle has a dorsal and a ventral component.
 2 [Slide 13]
 ED. And here in essence is your dorsal component (Indicated Image A, Utricular portion of otic
vesicle), and here’s your ventral component (Indicated image A, Saccula
r portion of otic vesicle). The ventral component gives rise to the sacculus, the dorsal component to the utriculus. And the utriculus forms the semicircular canals, the sacculus will eventually form the organ of corti. And the organ of corti is associated with hearing, utriculus with the formation of the semicircular canals. So starting with the sacculus, it begins to expand and coil around itself, until finally you get something that looks like this. In essence it looks like a snail shell and that becomes organ of corti. [Slide 14]
Here we have an elaboration of the cochlear duct. And here’s the cochlear duct (Image A).
Here we have cells that will form the organ of corti (red cells all along outside of duct) and there seems to be a darkened area over the top. If we move on to diagram B, you can see these cells developed further, they are known as hair cells. And they do have little hair like structures projecting from them. These are in essence your sense organs and the structure overlying them is your tectorial membrane. You can see this relationship better in the bottom diagram (Image C). Here are your hair cells and you may or may not be able to see
 3 it, but there seem to be little projection, those are the hairs, and this is the tectorial membrane. In addition to the cochlear duct we are going to get two additional cavities forming. Scala vestibuli and this as the scala tympani. In addition the cells up in this area (neighboring scala vestibuli in Image B), which were these cells initially (making up the back part of the ring in Image A) thin down and become what is known as your vestibular membrane. Now these are all epithelial cells and underneath organ of corti there
s also a membrane called the basilar
membrane. You can see it’s just right underneath here (indicated location on Image C). And connected to this organ of corti you’ll have your nerve fibers leading into
your ganglion and back into the brain. [Slide 15]
 ED. So this is what A that snail shell appearance looks. Here we have something a little bit
more magnified. What’s left out on this diagram is the space on top called the scala vestibuli
and scala tympani. But you have a highly mag view of these special cells (Image B), the
neural epithelial cells which become your hair cells. And here you can see the word “hair cells” (Image C), we’re not distinguishing between outer and inner. They’re just hair cells.
And you can see little fuzzy structures on top of them.
And then you’ll see that the tectorial mem
brane seems to be sitting over the hair of the hair cells. Now what happens in this mechanism is that the outer ear picks up sound waves in the air, transmits it to middle ear, and again still dealing with vibrations in air, then the sound waves are transmitted to the inner ear, to the organ of corti. But this whole inner ear is in a fluid base. So that means the vibrations are transmitted from air to fluid now. And since everything id in a fluid environment, what happens is that this whole mechanism rocks up and down, and as it rocks up and down, these little hairs contact tectorial

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