146IMPLEMENTING POLICIES:INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION MANAGEMENT
should be responsible for the final disposal of their wastes in an acceptable manner.In practical terms, three different actors haveto be considered in waste management: the gen-erator, the disposal facility, and the transporterof the wastes between the first two. The law willnormally put the responsibility on the generator,but there must be a system that allows the gov-ernment to monitor the movement of wastes fromthe generator to approved disposal. Such a sys-tem normally consists of a number of elements.These include placing formal responsibility onthe generator to prove its compliance with dis-posal requirements, licensing waste haulers anddisposal facilities, and establishing a manifestsystem to track the movement of wastes.In the design of a manifest system, care mustbe taken to provide sufficient control withoutgenerating excessive administrative or regulatoryeffort. The basic principle is that each load of waste is accompanied by a multicopy documentthat identifies the characteristics of the waste, theapproved disposal facility, and the responsiblecompanies or individuals. Copies of the mani-fest are held, at a minimum, by the generator andthe disposal facility. The manifest can providevaluable information to the authorities aboutpatterns and trends in waste generation and dis-posal and make possible confirmation of com-pliance with regulations.
Storage of Hazardous Wastes
A hazardous waste management system shouldinclude regulations governing the storage of haz-ardous wastes at the generator’s site or at anyother transfer or disposal facility. In the absenceof approved (or affordable) disposal options, itis common for generators or transporters to storewastes as a stopgap measure, but this approachcan result in neglected piles of deterioratingwastes that pose significant hazards. It is not ac-ceptable to allow generators to stockpile wastesover an extended period of time as a way of avoiding disposal problems.
Treatment and Disposal Facilities
Hazardous waste facilities frequently comprisestorage, recovery, and treatment stages, as wellas final disposal. This allows the facility to takeadvantage of economies of scale and of opportu-nities to blend different waste streams and to re-cover some materials, particularly oils andsolvents. Such a facility can be complex and needsproper management and supervision. Potentialoperators need to demonstrate the necessarytechnical, financial, and managerial capabilitiesbefore a license to operate is issued. Any dis-charges from the site to air or water need to bevery closely controlled and monitored.Final disposal is almost always incinerationor landfill. (Since incineration generates an ash,which is normally landfilled, it is sometimesconsidered a treatment step rather than finaldisposal, but this distinction is not often im-portant.)
Incineration involves the thermal destruction of gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes. Thermal oxida-tion converts complex organics into simple com-pounds, greatly reduces waste volumes, and canrecover the heat content of wastes. Incinerationrequires relatively high temperatures (typicallyabove 1,000°C), normally requires control of fluegases, and generates small quantities of ash orslag.Hazardous waste incineration normally takesplace in purpose-built facilities whose high capi-tal and operating costs require significantthroughputs for economic viability—typically,more than 10,000 metric tons a year. This requiredscale limits their feasibility in many newly indus-trializing countries.Incineration is an accepted form of disposalfor certain wastes in industrial countries, wherecareful gas cleaning and monitoring are required.Similar systems can be suitable for developingcountries if adequate attention is given to themanagement and monitoring aspects.Successful incineration requires good designand careful operation. The key operationalcharacteristics are temperature, residence time,and turbulence in the combustion chamber, allof which affect the efficiency of destruction. Apoor installation can emit particulates, acidicgases, unburned wastes, and trace quantitiesof hazardous organic by-products. Some wastes,