What this guidance does not cover
This guidance note is only concerned withpiling impacts; it does not cover other impactsassociated with pile construction, such as pilingmats or the excavation of pile caps, or other aspects of construction.These are covered instudy of the
Mitigation of Construction Impactson Archaeological Remains
2004),which provides information on pre-construction, construction and post-construction impacts on archaeological remains.It is also assumed that the use of piledfoundations as a means of mitigation is a choice that is taken in the context of other construction, planning and archaeologicalmitigation scenarios, including the refusal of planning permission for the construction of aparticular development, the use of shallowfoundations, the redesign of any structures toavoid below-ground disturbance or preservation of the site ‘by record’, througharchaeological excavation.
Piling is a method of transferring load from astructure into the ground.The engineeringobjective of a pile is to support a structure by using the strength of the ground some distancebelow the surface that can resist the imposedforce.This can be by direct bearing onto a firmstratum present at depth below the site or by using the frictional resistance of the soil against the pile shaft to develop the load-bearingcapacity. In some cases a combination of theseis used where the pile is founded on a firmhorizon and the sides develop surface friction(Figs 1 and 2).Engineering factors influencing the choice of pile type include:
(top left) End bearing pile, where the pile isfounded in the hard incompressible layer rather than the soil above.
(top right) Friction bearing pile, where thesediment becomes increasingly stiff with depth.
• the proposed structure and location (for example high-rise urban flats or low-risegreenfield warehousing)• ground conditions (ie cohesive or non-cohesive soil) and location of the water table• durability (for example, concrete can suffer chemical attack and steel piles may corrode)• cost (including speed of installation andcertainty of the chosen method being effective)Pile types in this guidance note are groupedand described following Tomlinson (1994) (Fig 3).
(middle) Pile types (after Tomlinson 1994, ch 8).
Displacement piles push the sediment asideas they are installed, compressing the groundand increasing the bearing capacity of thefoundation. Displacement piles areenvironmentally positive in the sense that there is no need to remove spoil, no landfillrequirements, and reduced vehicle movements.This is particularly important on contaminatedsites where the arisings (spoil) wouldrequire remediation.There are several forms of displacementpile (Fig 4).
(bottom) Displacement pile types (after Tomlinson 1994, ch 8).
Large displacement piles
Large displacement piles can be constructedfrom concrete, metal or, rarely, wood, and areinstalled by hammering, jacking or vibrating thepiles (or tubes) into the ground (Fig 5). A drop-hammer simply drops a large weight onto the top of the pile, however, they producesignificant vibration. Hydraulic hammers use acontrollable powered ram and are quieter andcause less vibration than the drop-hammer. If