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Piling for Web tagged

Piling for Web tagged

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2007
Piling and Archaeology
An English Heritage Guidance Note
 
 
Contents
Introduction 2Structure 2 What this guidance note does not cover 3Piling types 3Displacement piles 3Large displacement piles 3Small displacement piles 5Replacement (bored) piles 5Supported replacement piles 6Unsupported replacement piles 6Pile-retaining walls 7Vibro techniques 7Piling impacts upon archaeological remains 8Large displacement pile impacts 8Small displacement pile impacts 10Supported replacement piles impacts 11Unsupported replacement piles impacts 12Vibro techniques 12Summary of piling impacts 13Other issues to consider 13Mitigating the impacts of piling a continuing process 15Methods to reduce or avoid disturbance to archaeological remains 15Pile re-use 16Understanding the zone disturbance 17Pre-augering and probing for obstructions 17Piling and waterlogged deposits 17Piling and burial grounds 18Reporting 18Summary 18Case studies 18Pile pre-augering: JunXion Lincoln 18Steel screw piles: Salisbury 19Pile re-use: Ramada Encore Hotel, Micklegate,York 19Pile avoidance and redesign: 43 The Highway, Shadwell, London 20Research strategy 20Best practice: summary of guidance 20Early involvement 21Pile impact 21Pile choice 21Pile installation 21Records for the future 21Contact details 22Glossary 22References 23Authorship and acknowledgements 24
Introduction
In 1990 the Government published PlanningPolicy Guidance 16. Planning and Archaeology (PPG16) (Department of Environment 1990).This established a process for dealing witharchaeological remains affected by development.A key element of PPG16 is the ‘presumption infavour of the physical preservation of significantarchaeological remains’.To achieve this, buildingfoundations are often constructed aboveimportant archaeological deposits or, in the caseof piled foundations, through them. In somecases the pile location is archaeologically excavated, particularly if the pile or pile cap islarger than 1.2m in diameter. Increasingly,archaeologists have become concerned about the impact of piled foundations onarchaeological deposits. It has been suggested that piling through archaeological deposits may not have been a very effective method of 
insitu
preservation, and caused more damage than might have at first been assumed (Biddle1994; Nixon 1998; Davis
et al
2004).Specific issues include:the possibility that driven piles coulddamage archaeological depositspiling carried out without effectiveevaluation of the site could lead to piles beinginappropriately located in relation toarchaeological features (so causing additionalloss of information and cost to the developer)drilling fluids and concrete (prior to setting)from bored or augered piles might leach outadjacent to the pile boreso much of the site might be damaged thatfuture re-examination would not be worthwhilepiling might change the site hydrology,draining waterlogged depositsDespite this, foundation solutions thatpreserve the majority of an archaeologicalsite
in situ
are an essential tool in ensuring that development can take place wherearchaeological remains arepresent. It isacknowledged that foundations might damageburied deposits, but this is part of a balanced trade-off between allowing development to take place and the protection of the majority of the archaeological deposits of a site.This ‘balanced trade-off’ is a fundamentalassumption underpinning this guidancenote.The information in this document isprovided to ensure that where damage doesoccur, the impact on deposits and artefactsis minimised.
Structure
This guidance note has been prepared toassist planning and archaeological officers,and developers and their consultants to makewell informed decisions about piling schemesand the potential impact upon archaeologicalremains. It provides information on piling typesand their impacts, with mitigationrecommendations, a research strategy andcase studies.Piles, and the main piling types, are covered in the first section, describing the piling techniquesused to construct foundations, and theengineering choices and constraints, to enableconsideration of these techniques withinproposed
in situ
preservation schemes.The potential impacts of each pile type onarchaeological deposits are then considered.This section is followed by discussion of how to mitigate the impact of piling, giving a rangeof options.These focus on the types of decisions that planning and archaeologicalofficers, developers, and their archaeologicalconsultants need to consider throughout the design and construction process.Case studies are provided to demonstratesome of the mitigation suggestions. Futureresearch priorities are also identified; while theguidance note and case studies address many of the potential effects of piling, and offer generic solutions, it is recognised thatcomprehensive information is lacking onseveral key archaeological issues.2
 
What this guidance does not cover
This guidance note is only concerned withpiling impacts; it does not cover other impactsassociated with pile construction, such as pilingmats or the excavation of pile caps, or other aspects of construction.These are covered instudy of the
 Mitigation of Construction Impactson Archaeological Remains
(Davis
et al
2004),which provides information on pre-construction, construction and post-construction impacts on archaeological remains.It is also assumed that the use of piledfoundations as a means of mitigation is a choice that is taken in the context of other construction, planning and archaeologicalmitigation scenarios, including the refusal of planning permission for the construction of aparticular development, the use of shallowfoundations, the redesign of any structures toavoid below-ground disturbance or preservation of the site ‘by record’, througharchaeological excavation.
Piling types
Piling is a method of transferring load from astructure into the ground.The engineeringobjective of a pile is to support a structure by using the strength of the ground some distancebelow the surface that can resist the imposedforce.This can be by direct bearing onto a firmstratum present at depth below the site or by using the frictional resistance of the soil against the pile shaft to develop the load-bearingcapacity. In some cases a combination of theseis used where the pile is founded on a firmhorizon and the sides develop surface friction(Figs 1 and 2).Engineering factors influencing the choice of pile type include:
Fig 1
(top left) End bearing pile, where the pile isfounded in the hard incompressible layer rather than the soil above.
Fig 2
(top right) Friction bearing pile, where thesediment becomes increasingly stiff with depth.
the proposed structure and location (for example high-rise urban flats or low-risegreenfield warehousing)ground conditions (ie cohesive or non-cohesive soil) and location of the water tabledurability (for example, concrete can suffer chemical attack and steel piles may corrode)cost (including speed of installation andcertainty of the chosen method being effective)Pile types in this guidance note are groupedand described following Tomlinson (1994) (Fig 3).
Fig 3
(middle) Pile types (after Tomlinson 1994, ch 8).
Displacement piles
Displacement piles push the sediment asideas they are installed, compressing the groundand increasing the bearing capacity of thefoundation. Displacement piles areenvironmentally positive in the sense that there is no need to remove spoil, no landfillrequirements, and reduced vehicle movements.This is particularly important on contaminatedsites where the arisings (spoil) wouldrequire remediation.There are several forms of displacementpile (Fig 4).
Fig 4
(bottom) Displacement pile types (after Tomlinson 1994, ch 8).
3
Large displacement piles
Large displacement piles can be constructedfrom concrete, metal or, rarely, wood, and areinstalled by hammering, jacking or vibrating thepiles (or tubes) into the ground (Fig 5). A drop-hammer simply drops a large weight onto the top of the pile, however, they producesignificant vibration. Hydraulic hammers use acontrollable powered ram and are quieter andcause less vibration than the drop-hammer. If 

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