A specialized area of nursing practice employing theories of human behavior as itsscience and purposely use of self as its art.
Includes the continuous and comprehensive services necessary for the promotion of optimal mental health, prevention of mental illness, health maintenance, managementand referral of mental and physical health problems, the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders and their sequela, and rehabilitation
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING
Accept and respect the client regardless of his behavior.
Limit or reject the inappropriate behavior but not the individual
Encourage and support expression of feelings
in a safe and non-judgmentalenvironment.
Increase verbalization, decreases anxiety.
Behaviors are learned.
All behavior has meaning.
INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM PRIMARY ROLES
The psychiatrist is a physician certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, which requires 3-year residency, 2-years of clinical practice, andcompletion of an examination. The primary function of the psychiatrist is diagnosis of, mentaldisorders and prescription of medical treatments.
The clinical psychologist has a doctorate (Ph.D.) in clinical psychology and isprepared to practice therapy, conduct research, and interpret psychological tests.Psychologists may also participate in the design of therapy programs for groups of individuals.
The registered nurse gains experience in working with clients with psychiatric disorders aftergraduation from an accredited program of nursing and completion of the licensure examination. The nursehas a solid foundation in health promotion, illness prevention, and rehabilitation in all areas, allowing himor her to view the client holistically. The nurse is also an essential team member in evaluating theeffectiveness of medical treatment, particularly medications. Registered nurses who obtain a master’sdegree in mental health may be certified as clinical specialist or licensed as advanced practitioners,depending on individual state nurse practice acts. Advanced practice nurses are certified to prescribedrugs in many states.
Psychiatric social worker:
Most psychiatric social workers are prepared at the master’s level, and they are licensed insome states. Social workers may practice therapy and often have the primary responsibility for workingwith families, community support, and referral.
Occupational therapist may have an associate degree (certified occupational therapyassistant) or a baccalaureate degree (certified occupational therapist). Occupational therapy focuses onthe functional abilities of the client and ways to improve client functioning such as working with arts andcrafts and focusing on psychomotor skills.
Many recreation therapists complete a baccalaureate degree, but in some instances personswith experience fulfill these roles. The recreation therapist helps the client to achieve a balance of workand play in his or her life and provides activities that promote constructive use of leisure or unstructuredtime.
Vocational rehabilitation specialist:
Vocational rehabilitation includes determining clients’ interests and abilities and matchingthem with vocational choices. Clients are also assisted in job-seeking and job-retention skills, as well as