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Thayer Implications of the Philippines’ Submission to the Arbitral Tribunal

Thayer Implications of the Philippines’ Submission to the Arbitral Tribunal

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Published by Carlyle Alan Thayer
A three part analysis of the implications of the Philippines submission of a "memorial" (legal claim) to the UN Arbitral Tribunal regarding its entitlements to maritime zones under international law.
A three part analysis of the implications of the Philippines submission of a "memorial" (legal claim) to the UN Arbitral Tribunal regarding its entitlements to maritime zones under international law.

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Published by: Carlyle Alan Thayer on Mar 31, 2014
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05/26/2014

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Background Briefing: Implications of the Philippines’ Submission to the Arbitral Tribunal - 1 Carlyle A. Thayer March 28, 2014
󰁛󰁣󰁬󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁮󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁝
 
󰁗󰁥 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁤󰁯󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡 󰁲󰁥󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁮󰁤 󰁯󰁦 󰁍󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨. 󰁗󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁱󰁵󰁥󰁳󰁴 󰁹󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁥󰁳: 󰁑1. 󰁗󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󲀙󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁵󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡? 󰁗󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁬󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁤󰁹 󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁴󰁷󰁥󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡? A󰁎󰁓󰁗󰁅󰁒: 󰁆󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁤 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁬󰁯󰁤󰁧󰁥 󰁡 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡󰁮 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬, 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁯 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁤󰁲󰁡󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳. 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁬󰁳󰁯 󰁰󰁵󰁴 󰁤󰁩󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳. 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁷 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁩󰁬󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁡󰁨󰁥󰁡󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁮 30
󰁴󰁨
 󰁍󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨. 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡󲀙󰁳 󰁦󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁢󰁡󰁣󰁫 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳. 󰁏󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁬󰁯󰁤󰁧󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁰󰁡󰁳󰁳 󰁡 󰁣󰁯󰁰󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁧󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁲󰁴󰁹 󰁤󰁡󰁹󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁲󰁥󰁰󰁬󰁹. 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁧󰁡󰁩󰁮 󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁦󰁵󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁰󰁡󰁴󰁥. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁵󰁳󰁴, 󰁯󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁩󰁰󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬, 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳. 󰁆󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴, 󰁩󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁥 󰁷󰁥󰁬󰁬 󰁦󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷? 󰁓󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤, 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁪󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁥󰁳 󰁲󰁡󰁩󰁳󰁥󰁤? 󰁉󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁮󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥, 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁷󰁯󰁮 󰁡 󰁶󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁹. 󰁉󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥, 󰁩󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁲󰁥󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁥󰁶󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥, 󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁦󰁵󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁳 󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁰󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁰󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁢󰁥󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮. 󰁑2. 󰁗󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁯󰁫󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁴󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁦󰁵󰁲󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁩󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁥󰁩󰁺󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁅󰁸󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁅󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁣 󰁚󰁯󰁮󰁥 (󰁅󰁅󰁚) 󰁯󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁬󰁦, 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁹󰁵󰁮󰁧󰁩󰁮 󰁓󰁨󰁯󰁡󰁬 (󰁓󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤 󰁔󰁨󰁯󰁭󰁡󰁳 󰁓󰁨󰁯󰁡󰁬)? 󰁏󰁲 󰁤󰁯 󰁹󰁯󰁵 󰁳󰁥󰁥 B󰁥󰁩󰁪󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡, 󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁢󰁡󰁮 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁬󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁊󰁡󰁮󰁵󰁡󰁲󰁹? 󰁏󰁲 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁨󰁡󰁰󰁳 󰁡󰁮 A󰁩󰁲 󰁄󰁥󰁦󰁥󰁮󰁳󰁥 󰁉󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁚󰁯󰁮󰁥 (A󰁄󰁉󰁚) 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡? A󰁎󰁓󰁗󰁅󰁒: 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁴󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁵󰁰 󰁴󰁯 󰁡 󰁹󰁥󰁡󰁲 󰁯󰁲 󰁬󰁯󰁮󰁧󰁥󰁲. 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁷󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁯󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁵󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁮󰁧󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󲀜󰁳󰁡󰁬󰁡󰁭󰁩 󰁳󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁮󰁧󲀝 󰁴󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁡 󰁦󰁡󰁩󰁴 󰁡󰁣󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁥󰁡 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮.
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 2
󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁯󰁦 A󰁹󰁵󰁮󰁧󰁩󰁮 󰁓󰁨󰁯󰁡󰁬 󰁩󰁳 󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁤 󰁷󰁥󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮. 󰁉󰁦 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁵󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁫 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁬󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁭󰁥 󰁵󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁮󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁳 󰁵󰁮󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁮󰁴 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡, 󰁴󰁨󰁵󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡󲀙󰁳 󰁢󰁬󰁯󰁣󰁫󰁡󰁧󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁬󰁹 󰁢󰁹 󰁳󰁥󰁡. 󰁃󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁵󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁬󰁹 󰁢󰁹 󰁡󰁩󰁲 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁤󰁩󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁵󰁬󰁴. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁕󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁓󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁳󰁨󰁯󰁷󰁳 󰁮󰁯 󰁳󰁩󰁧󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁡󰁣󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁧󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁯󰁣󰁣󰁵󰁰󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁹 󰁯󰁦 A󰁹󰁵󰁮󰁧󰁩󰁮 󰁓󰁨󰁯󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁳 󰁩󰁴 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁊󰁡󰁰󰁡󰁮󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁡󰁤󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁥󰁮󰁫󰁡󰁫󰁵󰁳. 󰁄󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁰󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁯󰁤 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁩󰁳 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁬󰁩󰁫󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁡󰁧󰁡󰁩󰁮󰁳󰁴 󰁡󰁮󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁶󰁥 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁯󰁰 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁒󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁯 B󰁡󰁮󰁫 󰁯󰁲 󰁩󰁮 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁳. 󰁑3. 󰁗󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮 󰁦󰁯󰁲 A󰁓󰁅A󰁎 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁴󰁳? A󰁎󰁓󰁗󰁅󰁒: 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁡󰁩󰁳󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁫󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 A󰁓󰁅A󰁎 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳. 󰁉󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁡 󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁪󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮, 󰁩󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷, 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁕󰁎 󰁃󰁯󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁮 󰁌󰁡󰁷 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁥󰁡, 󰁩󰁳 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁤. 󰁔󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁴󰁯 󰁢󰁥 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁳󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮󰁴󰁹 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳. 󰁉󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁦󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁡󰁶󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳, 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁮 󰁖󰁩󰁥󰁴󰁮󰁡󰁭. 󰁖󰁩󰁥󰁴󰁮󰁡󰁭󲀙󰁳 󰁢󰁡󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁥 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁡󰁳󰁴 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁥󰁸󰁡󰁧󰁧󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁡󰁣󰁣󰁯󰁲󰁤 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷. A󰁬󰁳󰁯, 󰁖󰁩󰁥󰁴󰁮󰁡󰁭 󰁯󰁣󰁣󰁵󰁰󰁩󰁥󰁳 󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁴󰁩󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁷󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳. B󰁵󰁴 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁡󰁣󰁴 󰁯󰁮 󰁖󰁩󰁥󰁴󰁮󰁡󰁭, 󰁡󰁮 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁡󰁶󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁯󰁵󰁬󰁤 󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁧󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷. B󰁵󰁴 󰁕󰁎󰁃󰁌󰁏󰁓 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁮󰁯 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁥󰁮󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁣󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. 󰁑4. 󰁈󰁯󰁷 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬? A󰁎󰁓󰁗󰁅󰁒: 󰁉󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁥󰁸󰁴󰁲󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁩󰁭󰁥. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁨󰁯󰁰󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁮󰁴 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁢󰁹 󰁰󰁨󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮󰁳. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁣󰁡󰁮󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁮 󰁡 󰁕.󰁓. 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁹 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁧󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁹 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁗󰁡󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁴󰁯󰁮 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁡󰁫󰁥󰁮. 󰁕󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷 󰁭󰁡󰁹 󰁢󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󲀜󰁷󰁥󰁡󰁰󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁷󰁥󰁡󰁫󲀝 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁶󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁡󰁮󰁴 󰁡󰁴󰁴󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁴 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁥󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁹 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁣󰁲󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁥 󰁡 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁯󰁲󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁥 󰁶󰁩󰁥󰁷󰁥󰁤 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁢󰁹 󰁭󰁯󰁳󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁯󰁳󰁥 󰁩󰁮 A󰁓󰁅A󰁎. 󰁉󰁴 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁡󰁤󰁤 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁃󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁴󰁯 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󲀜󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁣 󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳󲀝 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󲀜󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮󰁴󰁹󲀝 󰁣󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷. 󰁓󰁵󰁧󰁧󰁥󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁣󰁩󰁴󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮: 󰁃󰁡󰁲󰁬󰁹󰁬󰁥 A. 󰁔󰁨󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁲, 󲀜󰁉󰁭󰁰󰁬󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁓󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬,󲀝
󰁔󰁨󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁲 󰁃󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁹 󰁂󰁡󰁣󰁫󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁂󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁦 
, 󰁍󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 28, 2014. A󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁡󰁣󰁫󰁧󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁲󰁩󰁥󰁦󰁳 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁯󰁮 󰁓󰁣󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁤.󰁣󰁯󰁭 (󰁳󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 󰁦󰁯󰁲 󰁔󰁨󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁲). 󰁔󰁯 󰁲󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁶󰁥 󰁹󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁦 󰁦󰁲󰁯󰁭 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁭󰁡󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁬󰁩󰁳󰁴 󰁴󰁹󰁰󰁥 󰁕󰁎󰁓󰁕B󰁓󰁃󰁒󰁉B󰁅 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁵󰁢󰁪󰁥󰁣󰁴 󰁨󰁥󰁡󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁨󰁩󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁒󰁥󰁰󰁬󰁹 󰁫󰁥󰁹. 󰁔󰁨󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁲 󰁃󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁹 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁶󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁳 󰁰󰁯󰁬󰁩󰁴󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁡󰁬󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁥󰁣󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁹 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁥󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁥󰁡󰁲󰁣󰁨 󰁳󰁵󰁰󰁰󰁯󰁲󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁣󰁬󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳. 󰁔󰁨󰁡󰁹󰁥󰁲 󰁃󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁵󰁬󰁴󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁹 󰁷󰁡󰁳 󰁯󰁦󰁦󰁩󰁣󰁩󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁲󰁥󰁧󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁳 󰁡 󰁳󰁭󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󰁳 󰁩󰁮 A󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬󰁩󰁡 󰁩󰁮 2002.
 
 
Background Briefing: Implications of the Philippines’ Submission to the Arbitral Tribunal - 2 Carlyle A. Thayer March 29, 2014
󰁛󰁣󰁬󰁩󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁮󰁡󰁭󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁤󰁝 󰁗󰁥 󰁲󰁥󰁱󰁵󰁥󰁳󰁴 󰁹󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁦󰁯󰁬󰁬󰁯󰁷󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁥󰁳: 󰁑1. 󰁗󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁳󰁩󰁤󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁤 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁴󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁡 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬? A󰁎󰁓󰁗E󰁒: 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁩󰁴 󰁥󰁸󰁨󰁡󰁵󰁳󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁢󰁩󰁬󰁡󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁳󰁥󰁴󰁴󰁬󰁥 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁥 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁮󰁥󰁧󰁯󰁴󰁩󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁤 󰁮󰁯 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁵󰁲󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁵󰁳󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮󰁳. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁡󰁣󰁥󰁤 󰁡 󰁳󰁩󰁴󰁵󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁷󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁢󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁮 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󲀜󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴󰁳󲀝 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󲀜󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮󰁴󰁹󲀝 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁯󰁵󰁧󰁨 󰁡󰁧󰁧󰁲󰁥󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁶󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁡󰁮󰁳, 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁨󰁡󰁲󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁯󰁩󰁬 󰁥󰁸󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁲󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁳󰁨󰁩󰁰󰁳 󰁡󰁮󰁤 F󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁯 󰁦󰁩󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁥󰁮, 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁯󰁩󰁮󰁴, 󰁢󰁹 󰁰󰁨󰁹󰁳󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬󰁬󰁹 󰁯󰁣󰁣󰁵󰁰󰁹󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁷󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁬󰁯󰁷 󰁴󰁩󰁤󰁥 󰁥󰁬󰁥󰁶󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳. 󰁓󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭 󰁰󰁡󰁲󰁴 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁬󰁦 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁮󰁯 󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁲 󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁣󰁡󰁮 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭 󰁳󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮󰁴󰁹 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁭. 󰁔󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁳󰁥󰁥󰁫󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁥 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁴󰁬󰁥󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁳 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷, 󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁴 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁮 E󰁸󰁣󰁬󰁵󰁳󰁩󰁶󰁥 E󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁯󰁭󰁩󰁣 󰁚󰁯󰁮󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁯 󰁦󰁥󰁡󰁴󰁵󰁲󰁥󰁳 󰁯󰁮 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁡󰁬 󰁳󰁨󰁥󰁬󰁦. C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁦󰁩󰁥󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁢󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁦󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁣󰁵󰁳󰁳 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁷󰁩󰁴󰁨 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡. 󰁔󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁳 󰁢󰁥󰁣󰁡󰁵󰁳󰁥 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁡󰁳󰁳󰁥󰁲󰁴󰁳 󲀜󰁩󰁮󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁳󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲󰁥󰁩󰁧󰁮󰁴󰁹󲀝 󰁴󰁨󰁵󰁳 󰁬󰁥󰁡󰁶󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁮󰁯󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁧 󰁴󰁯 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁣󰁵󰁳󰁳 󰁢󰁵󰁴 󰁳󰁵󰁲󰁲󰁥󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁯 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󰁥 󰁤󰁥󰁭󰁡󰁮󰁤󰁳. 󰁑2. 󰁗󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁦󰁯󰁲󰁭󰁡󰁬 󰁰󰁬󰁥󰁡 󰁷󰁯󰁲󰁫? 󰁗󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁩󰁴 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁴󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁴󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁥󰁡󰁣󰁥󰁦󰁵󰁬 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁤󰁩󰁰󰁬󰁯󰁭󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁣 󰁳󰁯󰁬󰁵󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁲󰁩󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁩󰁳󰁰󰁵󰁴󰁥󰁳 󰁩󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡? A󰁎󰁓󰁗E󰁒: 󰁏󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁳󰁵󰁢󰁭󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁩󰁴󰁳 󰁭󰁥󰁭󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁡󰁬 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬, 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁴󰁷󰁯 󰁤󰁥󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁭󰁩󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳. F󰁩󰁲󰁳󰁴, 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳󲀙 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁭󰁥󰁲󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁮 󰁩󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁲󰁮󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁬󰁡󰁷? 󰁓󰁥󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁤, 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁪󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁶󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁩󰁳󰁳󰁵󰁥󰁳 󰁲󰁡󰁩󰁳󰁥󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳? 󰁓󰁩󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁳 󰁡󰁮 󰁵󰁮󰁰󰁲󰁥󰁣󰁥󰁤󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁥 󰁵󰁮󰁤󰁥󰁲 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁕󰁮󰁩󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁎󰁡󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 C󰁯󰁮󰁶󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮 󰁯󰁮 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁌󰁡󰁷 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁥󰁡 (󰁕󰁎C󰁌󰁏󰁓) 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁩󰁭󰁰󰁯󰁳󰁳󰁩󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰁴󰁯 󰁫󰁮󰁯󰁷 󰁷󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁩󰁳󰁩󰁯󰁮󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁭󰁡󰁫󰁥. 󰁔󰁨󰁥󰁲󰁥 󰁡󰁲󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁲󰁥󰁥 󰁢󰁡󰁳󰁩󰁣 󰁳󰁣󰁥󰁮󰁡󰁲󰁩󰁯󰁳: (1) 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁨󰁡󰁴 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁨󰁡󰁳 󰁮󰁯 󰁬󰁥󰁧󰁡󰁬 󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁥 󰁡󰁮󰁤 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁯󰁥󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁨󰁡󰁶󰁥 󰁪󰁵󰁲󰁩󰁳󰁤󰁩󰁣󰁴󰁩󰁯󰁮; (2) 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁵󰁬󰁥󰁳 󰁥󰁮󰁴󰁩󰁲󰁥󰁬󰁹 󰁩󰁮 󰁦󰁡󰁶󰁯󰁵󰁲 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁐󰁨󰁩󰁬󰁩󰁰󰁰󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳; 󰁡󰁮󰁤 (3) 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁧󰁩󰁶󰁥󰁳 󰁡 󰁭󰁩󰁸󰁥󰁤 󰁪󰁵󰁤󰁧󰁭󰁥󰁮󰁴. C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁩󰁴 󰁩󰁳 󰁮󰁯󰁴 󰁢󰁯󰁵󰁮󰁤 󰁢󰁹 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁰󰁲󰁯󰁣󰁥󰁥󰁤󰁩󰁮󰁧󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬. 󰁉󰁦 󰁴󰁨󰁥 A󰁲󰁢󰁩󰁴󰁲󰁡󰁬 󰁔󰁲󰁩󰁢󰁵󰁮󰁡󰁬 󰁤󰁥󰁣󰁬󰁩󰁮󰁥󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁡󰁫󰁥 󰁵󰁰 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁣󰁡󰁳󰁥 󰁴󰁨󰁥󰁮 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁷󰁩󰁬󰁬 󰁦󰁥󰁥󰁬 󰁥󰁭󰁢󰁯󰁬󰁤󰁥󰁮 󰁴󰁯 󰁡󰁤󰁶󰁡󰁮󰁣󰁥 󰁡󰁬󰁬 󰁳󰁯󰁲󰁴󰁳 󰁯󰁦 󰁣󰁯󰁮󰁣󰁯󰁣󰁴󰁥󰁤 󰁣󰁬󰁡󰁩󰁭󰁳 󰁴󰁯 󰁴󰁨󰁥 󰁓󰁯󰁵󰁴󰁨 C󰁨󰁩󰁮󰁡 󰁓󰁥󰁡 󰁳󰁵󰁣󰁨 󰁡󰁳 󲀜󰁨󰁩󰁳󰁴󰁯󰁲󰁩󰁣󰁡󰁬 󰁲󰁩󰁧󰁨󰁲󰁳.󲀝
Thayer Consultancy
ABN # 65 648 097 123

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