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Karl.marx Communist.manifesto

Karl.marx Communist.manifesto

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Published by: Bahadur Comrade on Oct 24, 2009
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KARL MARXFREDERICKENGELS
MANIFESTOOF THECOMMUNISTPARTY
FOREIGN LANGUAGES PRESSPEKING 1970First Edition 1965Second Printing 1968Third Printing 1970
Prepared © for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,djr@cruzio.com
(November 1997)
PUBLISHER'S NOTE 
The present English edition of the
 Manifesto of tbe Communist Party
is a reproduction of the translation made bySamuel Moore in 1888 from the original German text of 1848 and edited by Frederick Engels. Included in thepresent text are Engels's annotations for the English edition of 1888 and the German edition of 1890 as well as allthe authors' prefaces to the various editions.The notes at the end of the book are based on those given in the Chinese edition of the
 Manifesto of theCommunist Party
, published by the People's Publishing House, Peking, in September 1964.
C O N T E N T S
PREFACE TO THEGERMAN EDITION OF 1872PREFACE TO THERUSSIAN EDITION OF 1882PREFACE TO THEGERMAN EDITION 0F 1883PREFACE TO THEENGLISH EDITION OF 1888PREFACE TO THEGERMAN EDITION OF 1890PREFACE TO THEPOLISH EDITION OF 1892PREFACE TO THEITALIAN EDITION OF 1893 1479162326 I.BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS30
 
II.PROLETARIANS AND COMMUNISTS47III.SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LITERATURE601. Reactionary Socialism a. Feudal Socialism b. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism c. German, or "True," Socialism606062642.Conservative, or Bourgeois, Socialism683.Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism69IV. POSITION OF THE COMMUNISTS IN RELATION TOTHE VARIOUS EXISTING OPPOSITION PARTIES74
74
KARL MARXFREDERICK ENGELS
MANIFESTO OFTHE COMMUNIST PARTY
[1]
Writen between December 1847and January 1848 First published as a pamphletin London in February 1848Original in German 
page 1
 
PREFACE TO THE GERMANEDITION OF 1872
[2]
 The Communist League, an international association of workers, which could of course be onlya secret one under the conditions obtaining at the time, commissioned the undersigned, at theCongress held in London in November 1847, to draw up for publication a detailed theoretical and
 
practical program of the Party. Such was the origin of the following Manifesto, the manuscript of which travelled to London, to be printed, a few weeks before the February Revolution.
[3]
Firstpublished in German, it has been republished in that language in at least twelve different editionsin Germany, England and America. It was published in English for the first time in 1850 in the
 Red Republican
,
[4]
London, translated by Miss Helen Macfarlane, and in I871 in at least threedifferent translations in America. A French version first appeared in Paris shortly before the Juneinsurrection of 1848 and recently in
 Le Socialiste
[5]
of New York. A new translation is in thecourse of preparation. A Polish version appeared in London shortly after it was first published inGerman. A Russian translation was published in Geneva in
page 2
the sixties. Into Danish, too, it was translated shortly after its first appearance.However much the state of things may have altered during the last twenty-five years, the generalprinciples laid down in this Manifesto are, on the whole, as correct today as ever. Here and theresome detail might be improved. The practical application of the principles will depend, as theManifesto itself states, everywhere and at all times, on the historical conditions for the time beingexisting, and, for that reason, no special stress is laid on the revolutionary measures proposed atthe end of Section II. That passage would, in many respects, be very differently worded today. Inview of the gigantic strides of Modern Industry in the last twenty-five years, and of theaccompanying improved and extended party organisation of the working class, in view of thepractical experience gained, first in the February Revolution, and then, still more, in the ParisCommune, where the proletariat for the first time held political power for two whole months, thisprogram has in some details become antiquated. One thing especially was proved by theCommune, viz., that "the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery,and wield it for its own purposes." (See
The Civil War in France
;
 Address of the General Councilof the International Working Men's Association
, London, Truelove, 1871, p. 15, where this point isfurther developed.) Further, it is self-evident that the criticism of socialist literature is deficient inrelation to the present time, because it comes down only to 1847; also, that the remarks on therelation of the Communists to the various opposition parties (Section IV), although in principlestill correct, yet in practice are antiquated, because the political situation has been entirelychanged, and the progress of history has swept from off the
page 3
earth the greater portion of the political parties there enumerated.But, then, the Manifesto has become a historical document which we have no longer any right toalter. A subsequent edition may perhaps appear with an introduction bridging the gap from 1847 tothe present day; this reprint was too unexpected to leave us time for that.
Karl Marx Frederick Engels
 London, June 24,1872 

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