Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Pattern Formation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Media

Pattern Formation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Media

Ratings: (0)|Views: 253|Likes:
Published by rortian
My paper from my summer of research in 2003.
My paper from my summer of research in 2003.

More info:

Published by: rortian on Oct 25, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/07/2009

pdf

 
Pattern Formation in Vertically Vibrated GranularMedia
Jeremy Corbettgtg778a@mail.gatech.eduSchool of MathematicsGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlanta, GA 30332August 14, 2003
Abstract
This work concerns pattern formation in vertically driven granularmedia. We generalize the work of Shankar C. Vankataramani andEdward Ott to test notions about patterns found in vertically drivengranular media. A generalization of this model is present along withsome of the preliminary results.
1 Introduction
Discovered over 150 years ago, pattern formation in driven systems is a hal-mark of non-equilibrium physics.
2
Patterned states can be found in systemsas diverse as visual hallucianations, chemical reactions, and granular media.Theoretical developments in mathematics have drastically affected under-standing of pattern formation. Deterministic systems that exhibit patternformation are typically described by nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) such as the Navier-Stokes equations for fluids, or reaction-diffusionequations for chemical systems.
4
However, not all systems with patternedbehavior have known deterministic equations. One example of such a systemis granular media. Which is consequently particularly interesting to study.The motivation for Vankataramani and Ott’s
8,9
work started with ex-periments by Francisco Melo, Paul B. Umbanhowar, and Harry L. Swinney,
6
who studied an apparatus consisting of two plates enclosing a layer of 0.15-0.18 mm diameter bronze spheres. This layer was then periodicly forced.1
 
By varying the frequency and dimensionless acceleration, a wide varietyof patterns were obtained–including stripes, squares, and hexagons. Thesepatterns arose spontenously, not as a result of specific boundary conditions.In other words, the patterned behavior was in the intrinsic dynamics of thebronze spheres, where complete understanding is an important problem.This situation motivated the work of Shankar C. Venkataramani andEdward Ott to develop a simple framework to describe the experiments.
8,9
Using a framework that they called continuum coupled maps (CCM) theycreated a simulation with striking qualitative agreement with the experi-ments of Melo et al.
6
This framework forms the basis of this project.The only direct approach available to model granular media involve par-ticle simulation. While phenomenological models (such as CCMs) can beused, their connection to the actual phenomena is not entirely clear.
1
One can use a PDE model to provide a good description of the phe-nomenon which remain simple enough to allow for analytic investigation.Such methods often give insight that compliment numerical simulations.
3
Vankataramani and Ott test Melo et. al
6
hypothesis that the patternedstates they observed were a result temporal period doubling and a standingwave instability. Modeling the dynamics of sand in discrete time, as donein the CCM model, allows for period doubling to be include in a map theexhibits period doubling. Discrete time also makes the length of orbits amuch more intuitive and testable phenomenon.While there are apparant drawbacks with using phenomenological mod-els and–in particular- models that discretize time or space, there are sub-stantial computational gains offered of PDEs or simulations. Moreover, thespatial operator in the CCM model can efficently implemented using thefast Fourier transform techniques.
2 Continuum Coupled Map model
The CCM uses a continuous field while having discrete time. I will brieflypresent the model used for the simulations, which is presented more thor-oughly by Vankataramani and Ott.
8,9
Let
x
R
2
. At time
n
N
, the height of the granular layer at position
x
is
ξ
n
(
x
). To step
ξ
n
(
x
) forward in time a one dimensional map
is appliedto every
x
to obtain
ξ
n
(
x
),
ξ
n
(
x
) =
[
ξ
n
(
x
)
,r
] (1)2
 
where r is a parameter of the map. A linear spatial coupling operator isthen applied to the spatial field.
ξ
n
+1
(
x
) =
L
[
ξ
n
(
x
)] (2)Assuming translational invariance
L
, is of the form
L
[
ξ
n
(
x
)] =
(
x
)
ξ
n
(
x
) (3)where
denotes convolution.Let¯
ξ
n
(
k
) and¯
(
k
) be the spatial Fourier transforms of 
ξ
n
(
x
) and
(
x
)respectively. This yields¯
ξ
n
+1
(
k
) =¯
(
k
)¯
ξ
n
(
k
) (4)The framework is then completely determined by the choices of 
and¯
(
k
):
(
ξ,r
) =
r
exp[
(
ξ
1)
2
/
2] (5)This map is similar to the logistic map, but does not have any orbits thatescape to negative infinity.
8,9
The assumption of isotropy implies
is function of 
k
=
|
k
|
. The Fouriertransform of this function is given by¯
(
k
) =
φ
(
k
)exp[
γ 
(
k
)] (6)where
φ
and
γ 
satisfy
γ 
(
k
) =12
kk
0
2
1
12
kk
0
2
,φ
(
k
) = sgn(
k
2
c
k
2
)
,
(7)where sgn(
y
) = 1 for
y
0 and sgn(
y
) =
1 for
y <
0. The function
γ 
has the property that
(0) = 1 wit maximum at
k
=
k
10
, where
k
10
isthe characteristic length of the model. The function¯
(
k
) decays quickly for
k > k
10
to discourage interactions that are longer than the characteristiclength.The system has two parameters:
r
and (
k
c
/k
0
)
2
. The former is roughlyanalogous to the dimensionless acceleration, whereas the latter is analogousto the forcing frequency. The patterns and bifurcation diagrams are similarqualitatively to patterns produced by in the granular media experiments.
6
3

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->