The Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Companion
The purpose of this chapter is to explain volume regulation. An under-standing of volume regulation is necessary to understand most of the disor-ders covered in this book, including hyponatremia, hypernatremia, meta-bolic alkalosis, congestive heart failure and edema formation.
is the simultaneous adjustment of plasma volume
blood pressure in order to maintain the adequate perfusion of tissues. Although the term
implies only the regulation of plasmavolume, adequate tissue perfusion requires that plasma moves. The move-ment, or circulation, of plasma throughout the body requires the mainte-nance of blood pressure.
Effective circulating volume
is a term which implies that for adequatetissue perfusion, plasma volume, as well as blood pressure, must be main-tained. Therefore, volume regulation should be thought of as
effective circu-lating volume
Volume regulation is the concomitant adjustment of plasma_________ and blood _________.aaavolume; pressure
The regulation of volume involves the regulationof plasma volume and blood pressure.
(effective circulating volume)
In this book, the terms “effective volume depletion”, “volume depletion” and “low effectivevolume” all refer to the same concept:
low effective circulating volume from a decrease inplasma volume and/or blood pressure
. The term “hypovolemia” is only used to refer toeffective volume depletion from
, such as with vomiting or diarrhea.