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ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

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Published by Chiikoy Añonuevo
Hand-outs (Basic Ecology to Communities)
Hand-outs (Basic Ecology to Communities)

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Published by: Chiikoy Añonuevo on Apr 07, 2014
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04/07/2014

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ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY
1.What is Ecology
Root Words:
Oikos
-house or place to live; home
Logos
-study
Study of organisms at home or in places where they live.
Total relations of the animal to its inorganic and organic environment (Ernst aec!el"#$%&'
Study of plants and animals in relation to their environment.
Scientific atural istory ()harles Elton"#&*+'
Scientific study of the interactions that determine the a,undance and distri,ution of organisms through space and time(re,s"#&$'
Study of the structure and function of nature (/dum"#&%0'
Study of the relationship ,etween living things and their environment.
 1 composite entity "incorporating natural sciences and social sciences 2t also involves history math and statistics" technology" ,usiness and management" law" ethics" philosophy" religion" morality" and aesthetics
2.Subdivisions of Ecology:
*.#
Autecology
-deals with the study of the individual organism"its life history"
 
,ehavior "characteristics and its adaptation to the environment.*.*
Synecology
-deals with the study of groups of organisms which are associated as a unit in relation to its environment.
3.Why do we have to elate to the suoundings? 
Relate(interact--------Survive3334istri,ution----------5erpetuation 6666666 6666666666  Reproduce 1,undance
!.Levels of Ogani"ation
 1tom-molecule-organelle-cell-tissue-organ-system-organism-population-community-ecosystem-,iosphere-earth
#.$nteaction in an ecosyste%&'abiotic and biotic factos(
.#
abiotic-abiotic-
relationship among physical factors in the environment.*
biotic-biotic
-interactions7relationships among ,iotic factors in the community.0
biotic-abiotic
-relationship ,etween living and non-living things in a community.%.
Ecosyste
(Tansley"#&0-coined'
Eco
-environment
! Syste
-indicates a comple8 of coordinated or organi9ed units
 1ny-spatial or organi9ational unit made up of living organisms and non-living su,stances or conditions that interact to produce and e8change materials and energy.
 
Refers to a situation where living or ,iotic units function together with their environment
 1 system which is made up of interdependent living and non-living structures enclosed within a defined ,oundary.
)wo *asic )y+es of Syste%s:
#.
T"e Close# Syste
-where no materials or energy pass through the e8ternal ,oundaries of the system*.
T"e O$en Syste
- wherein materials and energy enter and leave the system
In$uts
-entries or gains of materials and energy
T"%oug"$ut-
e8change of materials or energy ,etween su,systems or components within the system
Out$uts
-losses or e8its of materials and energy
Ecosyste Co$onents&
#.
Biotic 'a%t&()('%o#uce%s
#.#.#reen plants#.#.*5hotosynthetic acteria#.#.0)hemosynthetic acteria
()*Consue%s
#.*.#er,ivores#.*.*)arnivores#.*.0/mnivores#.*.<4etritivores
()+Deco$ose%s
#.0.#acteria#.0.*=ungi
*)Abiotic 'a%t*)(Cliatic ,acto%s
*.#.#>ight*.#.*Temperature*.#.01tmosphere and Wind
*)*E#a$"ic ,acto%s
*.*.#utrient )ontent*.*.*1cidity*.*.0?oisture )ontent
*)+To$og%a$"ic ,acto%s
*.0.#1spect*.0.*1ngle of Slope*.0.01ltitude
 
W,)E-:
 1n inorganic su,stance which plays an important role in the ecosystem
2rregularly distri,uted on the earth@s surface.
With an important ,earing on the character of the organisms that live on various types of ha,itats.
$%+otance of wate:
elps in the germination of seeds
Transports su,stances
 1ids in the erosion and ,rea!ing of roc!s
eeded to support plant tissues
)omprises a large percentage of the ,ody tissues
lant wate -e/uie%ents
y#%o$"ytes
-thrive in places where water is a,undant
alo$"ytes
-thrive in places where the water availa,le contains much dissolved salts
Meso$"ytes
-eed moderate supply of water
.e%o$"ytes
-)an tolerate scanty water supply
T%o$o$"ytes
-can adapt itself though there is mar!ed seasonal changes in the amount of water 
SO$L:
4etermines largely the character of vegetation and the tyopes of animals that maintain themselves upon it.
Ty$e o/ soils
: 1ccording to the !ind of materials and si9e of its particles
San#y
-inorganic soil particles that are larger than clay or silt
Clay
-smallest inorganic particle of soil
Loa
-made up of particles of gravel sand and clay with the addition of humus
Silt-
made up of very fine particles of soil or clay deposited as sediments.
Sunlig"t&
 1n important physical factor 
/ldest of all energy sources
Bu#get&*+0
-reflected ,y clouds
*0
-relected ,y surfaces of snow "glaciers" and oceans
(10
-lost ,y diffusion
(0
-used for pholtosynthesis
230
-a,sor,ed ,ut eventually lost ,y radiation
-EL,)$O0S$S 
:
Int%as$eci/ic
- ,etween or among the same species.

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