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Crystal Structure

Crystal Structure

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Published by: nguyenthitruc on Oct 27, 2009
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12/20/2012

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1
436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids
Phenomenon
electron diffraction pattern of asingle crystal GaAs (galliumarsenide)surface of gold - (111) planeAtoms are periodically arranged ina crystalline solid436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids (2)
Structure of a solid
Structure of a building –building blocks: e. g. bricks –how bricks are laid and boundBuilding blocks for a solid: atomsHow atoms are laid and boundTypes of possible structures –amorphous: random packing of atomse.g. glasses –crystalline: periodic packing of atoms (repeating patterns)e.g. most engineeringmetals and ceramicsvery important
Structure of crystals
Approximation –atoms ~ hard spheres of acertain radiusUnit cell: the repeating unit
Reading: 3.1-3.6 (6th ed)
 
2
436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids (3)
Basic types of crystalstructures
Face-Centered Cubic (FCC)one atom at each corner of thecubic unit cellone atom at each face certe
lattice
: 3D array of center positions of atoms4 (equivalent) atoms arecompletely contained in a FCC unitcell eachcorner atom= 1/88 x 1/8 = 1 eachface center atom= 1/26 x 1/2 = 3
 
IMSE: FCC Structure
436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids (4)
Face-Centered Cubic (FCC)geometric relationshipsvolume of the unit celltotal volume of atoms in a unit cellatomic packing factor (APF)
a
 
a
=
22
 R
 
UC  FCC 
=
a
3
=
162
 R
3
 
atoms FCC 
=
4
×
43
π  
 R
3
=
163
π  
 R
3
 
 APF 
 FCC 
=
atoms FCC 
UC  FCC 
=
0.74
FCC is one of the closest packed structures. It is still only 3 quarters filled by atoms.
Materialswith FCC:Al, Cu, NiSelf Study:Densitycalculation-Example 3.3
 
3
436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids (5)
Body-Centered Cubic (BCC)one atom at each corner of thecubic unit cellone atom at the body center 2 (equivalent) atoms arecompletely contained in a BCCunit cell eachcorner atom= 1/88 x 1/8 = 1 thebody center atom= 1
 
IMSE: BCC Structure
436-101 Unit 2: Engineering MaterialsDr. K. Xia
Structure of Crystalline Solids (6)
Body-Centered Cubic (BCC)geometric relationshipsvolume of the unit celltotal volume of atoms in a unit cellatomic packing factor (APF)
a
 
a
=
4
 R
3 
UC  BCC 
=
a
3
=
64
 R
3
33 
atoms BCC 
=
2
×
43
π  
 R
3
=
83
π  
 R
3
 
 APF 
 BCC 
=
atoms BCC 
UC  BCC 
=
0.68
BCC is not as densely packed as FCC
4R 4R 
?
Materialswith BCC:
α
 –Fe, Cr, WSelf Study:Densitycalculation-tutorial question

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