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Using YACAS

Using YACAS

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Published by johndoewho
This document describes the functions that are useful in the context of using Yacas as an end user.
This document describes the functions that are useful in the context of using Yacas as an end user.

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Published by: johndoewho on Feb 25, 2008
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Using Yacas, function reference
by the
Yacas
team
1
Yacas
version: 1.2.1generated on September 27, 2007This document describes the functions that are useful in the context of using Yacas as an end user.
1
This text is part of the
Yacas
software package. Copyright 2000–2002. Principal documentation authors: Ayal Zwi Pinkus,Serge Winitzki, Jitse Niesen. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of theGNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no InvariantSections, no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU FreeDocumentation License”.
 
Contents
1 Introduction 102 Arithmetic and other operations on numbers 11
+
arithmetic addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
-
arithmetic subtraction or negation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
*
arithmetic multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
/
arithmetic division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
^
arithmetic power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Div
Determine divisor of two mathematical objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Mod
— Determine remainder of two mathematical objects after dividing one by the other . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Gcd
greatest common divisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lcm
least common multiple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
<<
binary shift left operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
>>
binary shift right operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
FromBase
— conversion of a number from non-decimal base to decimal base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
ToBase
conversion of a number in decimal base to non-decimal base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
N
try determine numerical approximation of expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Rationalize
convert oating point numbers to fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
ContFrac
continued fraction expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Decimal
decimal representation of a rational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Floor
round a number downwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Ceil
round a number upwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Round
round a number to the nearest integer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Min
minimum of a number of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Max
maximum of a number of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Numer
numerator of an expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Denom
denominator of an expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Pslq
search for integer relations between reals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3 Predicates relating to numbers 17
<
test for less than. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
>
test for greater than. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
<=
test for less or equal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
>=
test for greater or equal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
IsZero
test whether argument is zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
IsRational
test whether argument is a rational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4 Calculus and elementary functions 19
Sin
trigonometric sine function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Cos
trigonometric cosine function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Tan
trigonometric tangent function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
ArcSin
inverse trigonometric function arc-sine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ArcCos
inverse trigonometric function arc-cosine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ArcTan
inverse trigonometric function arc-tangent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Exp
exponential function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Ln
natural logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sqrt
square root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Abs
absolute value or modulus of complex number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sign
sign of a number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
 
D
take derivative of expression with respect to variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Curl
curl of a vector eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Diverge
divergence of a vector eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Integrate
integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Limit
limit of an expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5 Random numbers 24
Random, RandomSeed
(pseudo-) random number generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RngCreate
manipulate random number generators as objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RngSeed
manipulate random number generators as objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Rng
manipulate random number generators as objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RandomIntegerMatrix
generate a matrix of random integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
RandomIntegerVector
generate a vector of random integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
RandomPoly
construct a random polynomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6 Series 26
Add
nd sum of a list of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Sum
nd sum of a sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Factorize
product of a list of values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Taylor
univariate Taylor series expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
InverseTaylor
Taylor expansion of inverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
ReversePoly
— solve
h
(
(
x
)) =
g
(
x
) +
O
(
x
n
) for
h
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
BigOh
drop all terms of a certain order in a polynomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
LagrangeInterpolant
polynomial interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7 Combinatorics 29
!
factorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
!!
factorial and related functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
***
factorial and related functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Subfactorial
factorial and related functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Bin
binomial coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Eulerian
Eulerian numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
LeviCivita
totally anti-symmetric Levi-Civita symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Permutations
get all permutations of a list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8 Special functions 31
Gamma
Eulers Gamma function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Zeta
Riemanns Zeta function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Bernoulli
Bernoulli numbers and polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Euler
Euler numbers and polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
LambertW
— Lambert’s
function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9 Complex numbers 33
Complex
construct a complex number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Re
real part of a complex number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Im
imaginary part of a complex number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
I
imaginary unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Conjugate
complex conjugate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Arg
argument of a complex number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
10 Transforms 35
LaplaceTransform
Laplace Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
11 Simplication of expressions 36
Simplify
try to simplify an expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
RadSimp
simplify expression with nested radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
FactorialSimplify
Simplify hypergeometric expressions containing factorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
LnExpand
— expand a logarithmic expression using standard logarithm rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
LnCombine
— combine logarithmic expressions using standard logarithm rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
TrigSimpCombine
combine products of trigonometric functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

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