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Immunology Whitebook

Immunology Whitebook

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Published by: mahmoudshahba on Oct 27, 2009
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07/21/2013

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1
Immunology
for 1
st
Year Medical Students
 © 
 
Timothy Lee PhD Andrew Issekutz MD
Department of Microbiology and Immunology Department of PediatricsDalhousie University Medical School IWK Children’s HospitalHalifax, Nova Scotia
 
Halifax, Nova Scotia
 © 
 
Copyright 2004, 2007, 2009; Timothy Lee and Andrew Issekutz
 
This textbook cannot be reproduced in whole or in part without the express permission of the copyright
 
holders.
 
2
Table of Contents
 The Two Page Version..................................................................................6Origin of the Cells of the Immune System..................................................7Antigens..........................................................................................................8
Chapter 1: Innate Immunity
………………………………………………...9
 
1.1 Nervous system…………………………………………………………91.2 Clotting Factors………………………………………………………...91.3 Recognition Receptors on Innate Cells………………………………101.4 Consequences of Activating Local Innate Cells……………………..101.5 Influx of Plasma……………………………………………………….111.6 Influx of Cells………………………………………………………….111.7 Link to Adaptive Immunity - The Dendritic Cell...…………………12
Chapter 2: Antibodies and the Cells That Make Them
.................................13
 
2.1 Antibody Structure ...............................................................................152.2.1 Fab Region of Antibodies ..................................................................162.2.2 Fc Region of Antibodies.....................................................................162.3 Antibody Diversity................................................................................172.4 Antibody Isotypes (Classes)..................................................................182.5 The Cells that Make Antibody - B cells..............................................202.5.1 B Cell Development............................................................................202.5.2 B Cell Activation ................................................................................222.5.3 T and B Cell Interaction....................................................................232.5.4 B Cell Differentiation into Plasma Cells .........................................242.6 Antibody Secretion...............................................................................242.7 Class Switch...........................................................................................252.8 B Memory Cells....................................................................................262.9 Antigens and Antigen-Antibody Interaction.....................................262.9.1 Antigens...............................................................................................262.9.2 Antigen-Antibody Interaction..........................................................27
Chapter 3: Complement
...............................................................................28
 
3.1 Complement Activity............................................................................283.2 Complement-Induced Vasodilation and Increased VascularPermeability.................................................................................................293.3 Chemotaxis.............................................................................................303.4 Opsonization..........................................................................................303.5 Membrane Attack Complex -MAC....................................................30
 
3
3.6 They Fight Back ....................................................................................31
Chapter 4: T Cells
.......................................................................................32
 
Preamble ......................................................................................................324.1 T Cells....................................................................................................334.2 T Cell Development..............................................................................334.3 Th cell Activation ..................................................................................344.4 Antigen Presenting Cells (APC)...........................................................354.5 T Cell Help -Th Cells ...........................................................................364.6 T Helper Cell Subsets...........................................................................364.7 CD8+ T Cytotoxic Cells.......................................................................374.8 Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Activity........................................................37
Chapter 5: Effector Cells of the Immune System
.........................................39
 
5.1 Monocytes and Macrophages...............................................................395.2 Natural Killer Cells..............................................................................405.3 Neutrophils............................................................................................405.4 Eosinophils............................................................................................415.5 Mast Cells..............................................................................................415.6 Basophils ...............................................................................................42
Chapter 6: Cytokines
.....................................................................................43
 
6.1.1 Interleukin 1 (IL-1)...........................................................................446.1.2 Interleukin 2 (IL-2)...........................................................................446.1.3 Interleukin 4 (IL-4)...........................................................................446.1.4 Interleukin 5 (IL-5)...........................................................................456.1.5 Interleukin 6 (IL-6)...........................................................................456.1.6 Interleukin 8 (IL-8)...........................................................................456.1.7 Interleukin 10 (IL-10).......................................................................466.1.8 Interleukin 12 (IL-12).......................................................................466.2 Interferon Gamma (IFN-
).................................................................466.3 Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF
).............................................466.4 Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF
).....................................47
Chapter 7: Transplantation and Major Histocompatibility Complex
............48
 
7.1 Preamble ................................................................................................487.2 Class I MHC .........................................................................................487.3 Class II MHC........................................................................................497.4 Indirect Presentation ...........................................................................49

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