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Plastic deformation of transparent crystals

Plastic deformation of transparent crystals

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Published by Bernard SCHAEFFER
A single dislocation pile-up was generated in a transparent crystal. Dislocation stresses were measured photoelastically. They were simulated numerically with two different methods. Although ionic crystals are brittle materials, compared to metals and plastics, they may be deformed plastically. Beyond the yield stress, plastics are no more linear but in ionic crystals birefringence remains proportional to the stress. By applying very small deformations on specially treated single crystals, It is possible to obtain an excess of only a few thousand edge dislocations in a single glide band.
Bernard Schaeffer
A single dislocation pile-up was generated in a transparent crystal. Dislocation stresses were measured photoelastically. They were simulated numerically with two different methods. Although ionic crystals are brittle materials, compared to metals and plastics, they may be deformed plastically. Beyond the yield stress, plastics are no more linear but in ionic crystals birefringence remains proportional to the stress. By applying very small deformations on specially treated single crystals, It is possible to obtain an excess of only a few thousand edge dislocations in a single glide band.
Bernard Schaeffer

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Bernard SCHAEFFER on Oct 28, 2009
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09/08/2010

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 1
PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF IONIC CRYSTALS
BERNARD SCHAEFFER
 ABSTRACT
 A single dislocation pile-up was generated in a transparentcrystal. Dislocations stresses were measured. They weresimulated numerically by two different methods.
INTRODUCTION
 Although ionic crystals are brittle materials, compared to metals and plastics, they may be deformed plastically. Silverchloride has been used as a model of polycrystalline metals[1]. Plastics also have been used as models because of theirtransparency, allowing photoelastic measurement of stresses.Beyond the yield stress, plastics are no more linear but inionic crystals birefringence remains proportional to thestress. By applying very small deformations on speciallytreated single crystals, it is possible to obtain an excess ofonly a few thousand edge dislocations in a single glide band.
 MATERIALS AND METHODSExperimental
Creating point defects by irradiation is a means to vary at will the mechanical properties of materials. Radiationhardening is particularly effective in lithium fluoridecrystals.
!
-irradiated LiF crystals (24 x 4 x 3 mm) wereobtained by cleavage, then partially annealed in their centre,using a few turns of a resistive electrical wire, in order tolocalise there the plastic deformation and avoid the effect ofstress concentrations at the ends of the specimen. They weredeformed by compression while observed through crossed polarsto visualise stresses by photoelasticity. The applied force was suppressed immediately after the first glide band hadappeared [2,3].
 
 2
Numerical
Two types of calculations were performed:1) The long range stress distribution was calculatedusing finite differences, using the dislocation distributionalong the glide obtained from photoelastic measurements.2) The mechanical behaviour of the specimen was simulated with Deform2D [4,5],a dynamical, fully non-linear finitedifferences program, in the elastic-plastic approximation.
RESULTSExperimental
 A single dislocation pile-up, schematised on fig. 1, wascreated by careful deformation of an irradiated and partiallyannealed LiF crystal. The stresses are of opposite signsacross (edge dislocations) and along the glide plane(dislocation source) (fig. 2).
DislocationsourceCompressionCompressionTensionTension
 Figure 1. Birefringence around a dislocation pile-up.The signs of the stresses may be visualised using a sensitivetint plate: one side of the glide plane will be red and theother one blue.The glide plane may be seen on the photograph:it is the fine black line separating two light regionscorresponding to the tensile and compressive stresses createdby the edge dislocations.
 
 3Figure 2. Calculated stressdistribution around adislocation pile-up. -Equidistance of curves is2 Mpa. From assumeddislocation distribution,obtained from photoelastic measurement along the glideplane and calculated byfinite differences, solvingthe biharmonic equation.Hatched regions correspondto tensile stresses. Thisis very close toexperimental results [3].Figure 3. Stressdistribution around aglide band, calculated with Deform2D. - The maximum shear in acompression test, beingnear 45 °, coincids withthe glide directions ofLiF. At the centre ofthe specimen the yieldstresses are four timessmaller than at theends. Although thestress distribution isnot very distinguishablein black and white, theglide band is visible onthe picture.

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