Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A Modified Design of Acf Operation For

A Modified Design of Acf Operation For

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1|Likes:
Published by ijngn
A Modified Design of Acf Operation For
A Modified Design of Acf Operation For

More info:

Published by: ijngn on Apr 09, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.6, No.1, March 2014DOI : 10.5121/ijngn.2014.610331
 A Modified Design Of Acf Operation ForReducing Papr Of Ofdm Signal
Md. Munjure Mowla
1
,Md. Yeakub Ali
2
and S.M. Mahmud Hasan
3
1,2,3
Department of Electronics& Telecommunication EngineeringRajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi,Bangladesh
 A
 BSTRACT 
 Next generation wireless communication technologylong termevolution (LTE) has implemented orthogonalfrequency division multiplexing (OFDM)technique as astrong candidate for radio accesssystems. It hasseveralattributessuch asprovidingrobustnessto multipath fading & impulse noise,eliminatingintersymbolinterference (ISI),inter carrier interference (ICI)& the need for equalizers.Themajorchallenging issue ofOFDMtechnique isthehigh peak to average powerratio (PAPR) which isdefined as the ratio of the peak power to the average power of the OFDM signal.A trade-off isnecessary for reducing PAPR with increasingbit error rate (BER), computational complexity or data rateloss etc.In this paper,amoderately modifieddesignof amplitude clipping & filteringoperation(ACF)is proposed and implemented which shows the significant improvement in case of PAPR reductionforbothquadraturephaseshift keying (QPSK) & quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)while increasing slight  BERmatch up toto an existing method.
 K 
 EYWORDS
 Bit Error rate (BER),Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF), Long Term Evolution(LTE),Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM) andPeak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR).
1.I
NTRODUCTION
Third generation partnership project (3GPP)adopted next generation wireless communicationtechnology Long Term Evolution (LTE) is designedto increase the capacity and speed ofexistingmobile telephone& datanetworks.LTE has adopteda multicarrier transmission technique knownasorthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).OFDM meets the LTE requirement forspectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions for very widecarriers[1].Theadditionalincreasing demand on high data rates in wireless communications systems has arisen in order tocarrybroadband services. OFDM offers high spectral efficiency, immune to the multipath fading,low inter-symbol interference (ISI), immunity to frequency selectivefading and high powerefficiency. Today, OFDM is used in many emerging fields like wired Asymmetric DigitalSubscriber Line (ADSL), wireless Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB), wireless Digital VideoBroadcast-Terrestrial (DVB-T), IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), IEEE802.16 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (IEEE802.16d),European ETSI Hiperlan/2 etc [2].One of thekeyproblemsof OFDM is high peak toaverage power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitsignal. If the peak transmit power is limited by application constraints, the effect is to reduce theaverage power allowed under multicarrier transmission compareto that under constant powermodulation techniques. Thislessensthe range of multicarrier transmission.Furthermore,thetransmit power amplifier must be operated in its linear region (i.e., with a large input back-off),where thepower conversion is inefficienttoavoidspectral growth of the multicarrier signal in the
 
International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.6, No.1, March 201432
form of intermodulation amongsubcarriers and out-of-band radiation.It may cause adetrimentaleffect on battery lifetime insomemobile applications. Ashandydevices have a finite battery life,it isconsiderableto find ways of reducing the PAPR allowing for a smaller more efficient highpower amplifier (HPA), which in turn will mean a morelasting battery life. In many low-costapplications, theproblemof high PAPR may outweigh all the potential benefits of multicarriertransmission systems [3].A number of promising approachesor processes have been proposed & implemented to reducePAPR with the expense of increase transmit signal power, bit error rate (BER) & computationalcomplexity and loss of data rate, etc. So,a system trade-off is required.These techniques includeAmplitude Clipping and Filtering, Peak Windowing, Peak Cancellation, Peak Reduction Carrier,Envelope Scaling, Decision-Aided Reconstruction (DAR), Coding, Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS), Selective Mapping (SLM),Interleaving,Tone Reservation (TR), Tone Injection (TI),Active Constellation Extension (ACE), Clustered OFDM, Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation,Nonlinear Companding Transforms etc [4].
2.C
ONCEPTUAL
M
ODELOF
OFDMS
YSTEM
OFDM is a special form of multicarrier modulation (MCM) with densely spacedsubcarriers withoverlapping spectra, thus allowing multiple-access.MCM works on the principle of transmittingdata by dividing the stream into several bit streams, each of which has a much lower bit rate andby using these sub-streams to modulate severalcarriers[5].In multicarrier transmission, bandwidth divided in many non-overlapping subcarriers but notessentialthat all subcarriers are orthogonal to eachother as shown infigure 1 (a) [2]. In OFDMthe sub-channels overlap each other to a certain extent as can be seen in figure 1(b), whichdirects to aresourcefuluse of the total bandwidth. The information sequence is mapped intosymbols, which are distributed and sent over the N sub-channels, one symbol per channel.Toallowdense packing and still ensure that a minimum of interference between the sub-channels ismet, the carrier frequencies must be chosen carefully. By using orthogonal carriers, frequencydomain can be viewed so as the frequencyspacebetween two sub-carriers is given by the distanceto the first spectral null[2].
2.1. Mathematical Explanation of OFDM Signals
In OFDM systems, adefinednumber ofconsecutiveinput data samples are modulated first (e.g,QPSK or QAM), and then jointly correlated together using inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT)at the transmitter side[5]. IFFT is used to produce orthogonal data subcarriers. Let, data block of length
 N 
is represented by a vector, X
=[X 
0
 , X 
1…….
 X 
 N-1
]
. Duration of any symbol
 X 
in the set
 X 
is
and represents one of the sub-carriers set. As the N sub-carriers chosen to transmit the signalare orthogonal, so we can have,
 f 
n
= n
 ∆f 
, where
n
 ∆f = 1/NT 
and
 NT 
is the duration of the OFDMdata block 
 X 
. The complex data block for the OFDM signalto be transmitted is given by [3],
=
=
102
1)(
 N n ft n jn
e X  N  x
  
 NT 
 ≤
0
(1)
Figure 1. Spectra of (a) An OFDM Sub-channel and (b) An OFDM Signal [2]
 
International Journal of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.6, No.1, March 201433
Where,
1
=
 j
 ,
 ∆f 
is the subcarrier spacing and
 NT 
denotes the useful data block period. IntheOFDMtechnique,the subcarriers aredefinitely chosen asorthogonalcharacteristics(i.e.,
 ∆f =
1/NT 
). On the other hand, OFDM output symbols typically have large dynamic envelope rangedue to the superpositionprocedureperformed at the IFFT stage in the transmitterstage.
3.B
ASICSOF
PAPR
Due to the incidenceof large number of independently modulated sub-carriers in an OFDMsystem,the peak value of thesystem maybe very high as compared to the averageof thetotalsystem.The coherent summation of N signals of same phase produces a peak which is N timesthe average signal [3].PAPRis anvitalfactor in the design of both high power amplifier (HPA)and digital-to-analog (DAC) converter, for generatingalmosterror-free (minimum errors)transmitted OFDM symbols. So, the ratio of peak power to average power is known as PAPR.The PAPR of the transmitted signal is defined as [6],
220020
max|()|max|()|[()]1|()|
tNTtN NT av
 xtxPAPRxP xtdt  NT 
= =
∫ 
(2)Where, P
av
is the averagepower of and it can be computed in the frequency domain becauseInverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is a (scaled) unitary transformation.Forsuperiorestimatedthe PAPR of continuous time OFDM signals, the OFDM signals samplesare obtained by
 L
times oversampling[3].
 L
times oversampled time domain samples are
 LN 
point IFFT of the data block with
(L-1)N 
zero-padding. Therefore, the oversampled IFFT outputcan be expressed as,
=
=
10 / 2
1][
 N  LN nk  j
e X  N n x
  
10
 
 NLn
(3)
3.1. Objectives behindPAPRreduction
Thedifficulties associated with OFDM areinherited by OFDMA(Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiple access) technique.OFDMA also suffers from high peak to average power ratio (PAPR)because it is inherently made up of so many subcarriers [7]. The subcarriers are summed upconstructively to form large peaks.Hence, high peak power requiresHigh Power Amplifiers(HPA), ADC and DACconverters. Mostof the wirelesssystems employ the HPA in thetransmitterto obtainenoughtransmission power. For the proposed of achieving the maximumoutput power efficiency, the HPA is usually operated ator near the saturation region [6].Theefficiencyof power is pivotalin wireless communication as it provides sufficientareacoverage, saves power consumption and allows small size terminals etc. It is important to targetata power efficient operation of the non-linear HPA with lowback-off values and try to givepossible solutions to the interference problem.In addition, the non-linear characteristic of theHPA is veryapproachableto the variationin signal amplitudes. The variation of OFDM signal
Power  AveragePower Peak PAPR
__
=

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->