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Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System

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Published by: Ana on Oct 28, 2009
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05/09/2013

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MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEMMicrobial Diseases of the Upper Respiratory System
Anatomical Defenses1. Nose- coarse hairs- mucous secreting cells and cilia2. Throat- ciliated mucous membrane- traps dust and organism- ciliated cells moves dust towards the mouth3. Lymphoid tissues (tonsils)
Normal Microbiota of the upper respiratory system:-
 S. epidermidis StreptococcusS. aureus H. influenzaeCorynebacterium
- Upper respiratory normal microbiota may include pathogens- normal microbiota suppresses the growth of pathogens by competing with nutrients &by secreting inhibitory substances.Transmission:1. Droplet infection ( respiratory secretion)2. Unpasteurized milk Signs & symptoms:1. Fever2. Local inflammation3. Enlarged & tender lymph nodes of the neck 4. Otitis mediaDiagnosis:1. Culture from throat swab2. Agglutination diagnostic testsTreatment:PenicillinScarlet Fever
 Streptococcus pyogenes
- lysogenized by a bacteriophage- produces Erythrogenic toxin- causes Pharyngitis
 
Signs & symptoms:1. Fever2. Pinkish Red Skin Rash- Hypersensitivity of the skin to the toxin3. Spotted , “ Strawberry tongue”Diphtheria
Corybacterium diptheriae-
Gram (+), non- endospore forming rod, immobile, straight or curved- Pleomorphic, “ Club-shaped”, "Chinese characters"- Klebs-Löffler bacillus- produces an Exotoxin ( Diphtheria toxin )Mode of transmission:1. Droplet infection (Resistant to drying)2. Cutaneous contactSigns & Symptoms:1. Fever2. Sore throat3. Malaise4. Swelling of the neck “Bull neck”- Tough grayish membrane that forms in the throat that contains fibrin, dead tissue andbacteria- Blocks passage of air to the lungs5. Cutaneous diphtheria - Infects skin wound/ lesions- Slow healing ulcerations covered by a gray membranePrevention:DPT ( Diptheria PertussisTetanus)Treatment:Penicillin and Erythromycin- controls the growth of bacteria- does not neutralize toxinAntibiotic + Diptheria antitoxinOTITIS MEDIA
Complication of colds or infections of the nose and throat
Common in childhood
Pus-formation in the eardrum causing it to be inflamed and painful
Common pathogens:S. pneumoniae (35%)H. influenzae (20-30%)M. catarrhalis (10-15%)S. pyogenes (8-10%)S. aureus (1-2%)Treatment:broad-spectrum antibiotics AmoxicillinIncidence of S. pneumoniae reduced by vaccineVIRAL DISEASES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMCOMMON COLD
Rhinoviruses – 50%Coronavirus – 15-20%Other viruses – 10%
Immunity to cold viruses accumulate during our lifetime
 
Decrease incidence of cold as age increases
200 agents cause colds 113 serotypes of rhinovirus
Vaccination is impracticalMode of transmission:1. Droplet infection2. Fomites - viruses can be found in door knobs, telephone, cards, handkerchief etc.
A single virus can cause coldsSigns & symptoms:1. Sneezing2. excessive nasal secretion3. congestionTreatment:Antibodies are of no useSupportiveBACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMLower Respiratory SystemThe Ciliary escalator keeps the lower respiratory system sterile.
Bacteria, viruses, & fungi cause:BronchitisBronchiolitisPneumoniaBACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMPERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH)
 Bordetella pertussis
- Gram-negative coccobacillus- Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus- Capsule
Humans are its only host.
Spread by coughing and by nasal drops
Incubation period is 7-14 days.
Occurs most with children under the age of one
Children with faded immunity, normally around the age 11 through 18.
Attaches to the ciliated cells in the trachea impeding their action and destroying the cells.
Toxins:1. Tracheal Cytotoxin – found on its cell wall- damages ciliated cells2. Pertussis Toxin - enters bloodstream and causes the symptoms.
Stages:1.Catarrhal stage- Mild respiratory infection symptoms- coughing, sneezing, and runny nose- Most contagious- One to two weeks2. Paroxysmal stage- Prolonged bouts of cough- Accumulation of mucus due to damaged cilia- Infected person desperately attempts to cough off mucus- Gasping of air in between coughcauses Whooping sound.

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