Decrease incidence of cold as age increases
200 agents cause colds 113 serotypes of rhinovirus
Vaccination is impracticalMode of transmission:1. Droplet infection2. Fomites - viruses can be found in door knobs, telephone, cards, handkerchief etc.
A single virus can cause coldsSigns & symptoms:1. Sneezing2. excessive nasal secretion3. congestionTreatment:Antibodies are of no useSupportiveBACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMLower Respiratory SystemThe Ciliary escalator keeps the lower respiratory system sterile.
Bacteria, viruses, & fungi cause:BronchitisBronchiolitisPneumoniaBACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEMPERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH)
- Gram-negative coccobacillus- Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus- Capsule
Humans are its only host.
Spread by coughing and by nasal drops
Incubation period is 7-14 days.
Occurs most with children under the age of one
Children with faded immunity, normally around the age 11 through 18.
Attaches to the ciliated cells in the trachea impeding their action and destroying the cells.
Toxins:1. Tracheal Cytotoxin – found on its cell wall- damages ciliated cells2. Pertussis Toxin - enters bloodstream and causes the symptoms.
Stages:1.Catarrhal stage- Mild respiratory infection symptoms- coughing, sneezing, and runny nose- Most contagious- One to two weeks2. Paroxysmal stage- Prolonged bouts of cough- Accumulation of mucus due to damaged cilia- Infected person desperately attempts to cough off mucus- Gasping of air in between coughcauses Whooping sound.