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History of Pharmaceutical Industry

History of Pharmaceutical Industry

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Published by Eswar Gupta Maddi
It describes the origin and history of the pharmaceutical Industry in brief.
It describes the origin and history of the pharmaceutical Industry in brief.

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Published by: Eswar Gupta Maddi on Oct 28, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/03/2013

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The History of the Pharmaceutical Industry
The
origins
of the pharmaceutical industry can be traced back to the chemicalindustries (of the late nineteenth century) in the upper 
Rhine Valley of Switzerland
.These industries were producing dye stuffs. When
dye stuffs
were found to have
antiseptic properties
, a number of these industries
turned
into
pharmaceuticalindustries
e.g. Hoffman-La Roche, Sandoz, Ciba-Geigy, etc.Another 
origin
is the
drug store
. The first known drug store was opened by
, and many more soon began operating throughoutthe
. By the 19
th
century,
many of the drug stores
in
Europeand North America
had
developed into larger pharmaceutical companies
. Most of today's major pharmaceutical companies were founded in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies.
Key discoveries
of the
1920s and 1930s
, such as
,becamemass-manufactured and distributed.
Switzerland, Germany, Italy, UK, US, Belgiumand Netherlands, had strong industries.
As a result of introduction and
success of penicillin
in the early forties and therelative success of other 
innovative drugs
,
research and development
(R&D) became a
major thrust area
of the pharmaceutical industry.The industry expanded rapidly in the sixties, benefiting from new discoveries. In the
1960s
attempts were made by the 
toincrease
regulation of pharmaceutical industries
and to limit
financial links
betweencompanies and prescribing physicians. In
1964
, after the
tragedy (in whichthe use of a new tranquilizer in pregnant women caused severe birth defects in the new born child), the
World Medical Association
set standards for clinical research.Pharmaceutical companies were required to prove
efficacyand safety
of the drug inclinical trials before marketing them.Tighter regulatory controls were introduced in the
seventies
. The new regulations
revoked permanent patents
and established fixed periods on patent protection for  branded products. As a result industries flourished by producing
generic products
andthey started earning huge profits, because generic manufacturers do not incur the costof drug discovery. (A generic drug is adrugon which patent has expired). From
1978, India
took over as the primary center of pharmaceutical production of  bulk drugs and products without patent protection. The industry remained relatively smallscale until the 1970s when it began to expand at a greater rate.Drugs for 
heart disease
and for 
AIDS
were a feature of the
1980s
, and the
US FDA
started
approving
such drugs
quickly
keeping in view the nature of the disease.

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