The History of the Pharmaceutical Industry
of the pharmaceutical industry can be traced back to the chemicalindustries (of the late nineteenth century) in the upper
Rhine Valley of Switzerland
.These industries were producing dye stuffs. When
were found to have
, a number of these industries
e.g. Hoffman-La Roche, Sandoz, Ciba-Geigy, etc.Another
. The first known drug store was opened by
, and many more soon began operating throughoutthe
. By the 19
many of the drug stores
developed into larger pharmaceutical companies
. Most of today's major pharmaceutical companies were founded in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies.
1920s and 1930s
, such as
,becamemass-manufactured and distributed.
Switzerland, Germany, Italy, UK, US, Belgiumand Netherlands, had strong industries.
As a result of introduction and
success of penicillin
in the early forties and therelative success of other
research and development
(R&D) became a
major thrust area
of the pharmaceutical industry.The industry expanded rapidly in the sixties, benefiting from new discoveries. In the
attempts were made by the
regulation of pharmaceutical industries
and to limit
betweencompanies and prescribing physicians. In
, after the
tragedy (in whichthe use of a new tranquilizer in pregnant women caused severe birth defects in the new born child), the
World Medical Association
set standards for clinical research.Pharmaceutical companies were required to prove
of the drug inclinical trials before marketing them.Tighter regulatory controls were introduced in the
. The new regulations
revoked permanent patents
and established fixed periods on patent protection for branded products. As a result industries flourished by producing
andthey started earning huge profits, because generic manufacturers do not incur the costof drug discovery. (A generic drug is adrugon which patent has expired).
took over as the primary center of pharmaceutical production of bulk drugs and products without patent protection. The industry remained relatively smallscale until the 1970s when it began to expand at a greater rate.Drugs for
were a feature of the
, and the
keeping in view the nature of the disease.