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Notes Ict Master

Notes Ict Master

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Published by: HZ_93 on Oct 28, 2009
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Panitia ICT KSAH
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)1.1.1.1Define ICT.
ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electroniccomputers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect,process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
INFORMATION Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research.The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio. Information isknowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks.COMMUNICATION Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information isexchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Communication isimportant in order to gain knowledge.TECHNOLOGY Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes products that fulfill human needs. Technology is vital in communication.
1.1.1.2Describe the brief evolution of computers.
COMPUTER GENERATIONSFirst Generation (1940-1956)The 1
st
. generation computer were huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, twoAmericans, Presper Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the ENIAC (Electronic NumericalIntegrator and Computer). It use vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1.In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly build the UNIVAC, which could calculate at the rate of 10,000addition per seconds.The new invention of hardware were needed with the new computer technology. Among themare vacuum tube, punched card, magnetic tape.Problems:
the vacuum tubes generated a great deal of heat causing many problems intemperature regulation and climate control 
the tubes also burnt out frequently 
 people operating the computer did not know that the problem was in the programming machine
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)The creation of transistor spark the production of 2
nd
. generation. Transistor was small devicesuse to transfer electronic signals across a resister. Compared to other hardware technology,transistors had many advantages such as:
transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes
they needed no warm up time
consumed less energy 
generated much less heat 
faster and more reliable
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)In the 3
rd
. generation era, the IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in severalmodels and sizes. It was used for business and scientific programs. Other computer modelsintroduced were CDC 7600 and B2500.The development of integrated circuit (IC) signal the beginning of the 3
rd
. generation. Siliconechips were manufactured in 1961. Then came the IC technology, which had reduced the sizeand cost of computers. It is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip of silicone which is alsoknown as semi conductor. Other than that, the Magnetic Core Memory was replaced by a
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Panitia ICT KSAH
device called the microchip. Also the first 256 bit RAM was introduced and it was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM.Advantages:A new concept in this generation was that of a family of computer which allowed computer tobe upgraded and expanded as necessary.
Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper.
Sold hardware & software separately which created the software industry.
customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks
)FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT)The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There aremany types of computer models such as
 Apple Macintosh, IBM, DELL & ACER.
In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Applecomputer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer.During the 4
th
. generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor andstorage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a chip which is developed for computer memory and logic.The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors.The transistors are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer's CPU.Advantages:
Computers became 100 times smaller than ENIAC the first computer 
Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity 
Personal & software industry boomed 
FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)The 5
th
. generation are technologically advance and are still being development to becomemore efficient. The inventions of new hardware technology have grown rapidly including manyother computer devices such as
silicone chips, processor, robotics, virtual reality intelligent systems & programs which translate languages
NEW ERA COMPUTERAfter the 5
th
. generation computer, the technology has become more advanced, modern &sophisticated. The latest invention in are
Super Computers, Mainframe Computers, Mini Computers, Personal Computers & Mobile Computers.
In the new era of computers, expert system such as teleconferencing & speech-recognitionsystem have been invented as part of communication tools.
1.1.2.1List the usage of ICT in everyday life.
EDUCATIONIn education, teachers, students, researchers and school administrators benefits from theusage of ICT. Computers offe
interactive experiences, enhanced learning, cognitif development & better management.
Teachers:~
use computers to search for teaching materials, participate in online forums and onlineconferences as well as to aid their teaching.
Students:
~ use the computers as a reference tool. They use computers to browse the internet to look for information.
Researchers:
~ use computers to collect and process data.
School Administrators:
~use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runssmoothly.
BANKINGIn the banking, customers, businessman & bank administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.Customers:~
can make any transactions at the 24 hour service centres or via online.These servicesallow them to do transaction at anytime they want.
Businessman:
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Panitia ICT KSAH
~ can save their time by using the online services offered by banks. They can accesscompany accounts for loan applications, business transactions and update on their cashflow at any time.
Bank Administrator:
~can oversee the entire banking activities such as reconciliations, inter-branch transactions(IBT), telegraphic transfer and others by referring to the banking system.
INDUSTRYComputers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chainmanagement and to help in product design in the industrial sector. In the industrial sector,workers, researchers and administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.Workers:~
use machines that are connected to computers to operate. In some productions, robots areused to take over jobs that are dangerous to the workers.
Researchers:~
use computers to analyse and collect research data for future reference.
Administrators:~
use computers to oversee the entire operations in the plant or factory to detect specific errors or defects that occurred in the process.
E-COMMERCEE-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, moreefficient and faster. For this application, computers, Internet and shared software are needed.In the e-commerce sector, customers, suppliers and employees benefits from the usage of ICT.Customers:~
use computers to be connected online with suppliers to purchase products. This method can save time and cost as they do not have to go to any outlets.
Suppliers:~
use computers to keep track of their transactions. All products are bar coded and can beread by the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory.
Employees:~
use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any enquiries. Thesystem helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to be informed to thecustomers.
OTHER SECTORS:Among other sectors that benefit from the usage of ICT are archiecture, arts, career,goverment, healthcare, home, law enforcement, transportation and travel
1.1.2.2State the differences between computerised and non-computerised systems.
Before ICTWith ICTEDUCATION
depends strictly on teachers &textbook 
no or limited technology in theteaching & learning process
more interesting & interactiveexperiences
enhanced learning 
BANKINGSYSTEM
banking was done manually by taking deposits directly 
transactions can only be madeduring working hours
takes time to approve any loanapplications
all transactions are done by computers
transaction can be done at anytime and place
online services, phone banking system, credit cards areavailable
INDUSTRY
Production was slow becauseeverything was done manually and totally depended on humanlabour.
Computers and telecommunications industry became very popular and  profitable since production canbe increased through an all day operation.
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