equation by (-1) wherever necessary. The remaining characteristics are achieved by usingthe elementary transformations introduced with the canonical form.
The Standard Form of the LPP
Any standard form of the L.P.P. is given by
Fundamental Theorem of L.P.P.
Given a set of m simultaneous linear equations in n unknowns/variables,n ≥ m, AX =b, with r(A) = m.If there is a feasible solution X ≥ 0, then there exists a basic feasible solution.
3.Describe the Two-Phase method of solving a linear programming problem with anexample.Answer:
Two Phase MethodThe drawback of the penalty cost method is the possible computational error that could resultfrom assigning a very large value to the constant M. To overcome this difficulty, a new methodis considered, where the use of M is eliminated by solving the problem in two phases. They arePhase I:Formulate the new problem by eliminating the original objective function by the sum of theartificial variables for a minimization problem and the negative of the sum of the artificialvariables for a maximization problem. The resulting objective function is optimized by thesimplex method with the constraints of the original problem. If the problem has a feasiblesolution, the optimal value of the new objective function is zero (which indicates that all artificialvariables are zero). Then we proceed to phase II. Otherwise, if the optimal value of the newobjective function is non zero, the problem has no solution and the method terminates.Phase II :Use the optimum solution of the phase I as the starting solution of the original problem. Thenthe objective function is taken without the artificial variables and is solved by simplex method.Examples:Use the two phase method toMaximize z = 3x1 – x2