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4113191 Oracle DBA Faq

4113191 Oracle DBA Faq

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Oracle DBA FAQ - Oracle Basic Concepts
This is a collection of FAQ for Oracle DBA on fundamental concepts. The clear answers and sample scripts provided can be used as learning tutorials or interview preparation guides. Topics included in this FAQ are:
What s Oracle!
What s an Oracle Database!
What s an Oracle nstance!
What s a "arameter File!
What s a #erver "arameter File!
What s a nitiali$ation "arameter File!
What is #%stem &lobal Area '#&A(!
What is "rogram &lobal Area '"&A(!
What s a )ser Account!
What s the *elation of a )ser Account and a #chema!
What s a )ser *ole!
What is a Database #chema!
What s a #tatic Data Dictionar%!
What s a D%namic "erformance +iew!Descriptions of some ,e% concepts are based on Oracle documentations.
What Is Oracle?
Oracle is a compan%. Oracle is also a database server- which manages data in a ver% structured wa%. t allows users to store and retrieve related data in a multiuser environment so that man% users can concurrentl% access the same data. All this is accomplished while delivering high performance. A database server also prevents unauthori$ed access and provides efficient solutions for failure recover%.
What Is an Oracle Database?
 An Oracle database is a collection of data treated as a big unit in the database server.
What Is an Oracle Instance?
ver% running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database is started on a database server 'regardless of the t%pe of computer(- Oracle allocates a memor% area called the #%stem &lobal Area '#&A( and starts one or more Oracle processes. This combination of the #&A and the Oracle processes is called an Oracle instance. The memor% and processes of an instance manage the associated database/s data efficientl% and serve the one or multiple users of the database.
What Is a Parameter File?
 
 A parameter file is a file that contains a list of initiali$ation parameters and a value for each parameter. 0ou specif% initiali$ation parameters in a parameter file that reflect %our particular installation. Oracle supports the following two t%pes of parameter files:
#erver "arameter Files 1 Binar% version. "ersistent.
nitiali$ation "arameter Files 1 Te2t version. 3ot persistent.
What Is a Server Parameter File?
 A server parameter file is a binar% file that acts as a repositor% for initiali$ation parameters. The server parameter file can reside on the machine where the Oracle database server e2ecutes. nitiali$ation parameters stored in a server parameter file are persistent- in that an% changes made to the parameters while an instance is running can persist across instance shutdown and startup.
What Is a Initialization Parameter File?
 An initiali$ation parameter file is a te2t file that contains a list of initiali$ation parameters. The file should be written in the client/s default character set. #ample initiali$ation parameter files are provided on the Oracle distribution medium for each operating s%stem. A sample file is sufficient for initial use- but %ou will probabl% want to modif% the file to tune the database for best performance. An% changes will ta,e effect after %ou completel% shut down and restart the instance.
What is System lobal Area !SA"?
The #%stem &lobal Area '#&A( is a memor% area that contains data shared between all database users such as buffer cache and a shared pool of #Q4 statements. The #&A is allocated in memor% when an Oracle database instance is started- and an% change in the value will ta,e effect at the ne2t startup.
What is Pro#ram lobal Area !PA"?
 A "rogram &lobal Area '"&A( is a memor% buffer that is allocated for each individual database session and it contains session specific information such as #Q4 statement data or buffers used for sorting. The value specifies the total memor% allocated b% all sessions- and changes will ta,e effect as new sessions are started.
What Is a $ser Acco%nt?
 A user account is identified b% a user name and defines the user/s attributes- including the following:
"assword for database authentication
"rivileges and roles
Default tablespace for database ob5ects
Default temporar% tablespace for 6uer% processing wor, space
What Is the &elation o' a $ser Acco%nt an( a Schema?
 
)ser accounts and schemas have a one1to1one relation. When %ou create a user- %ou are also implicitl% creating a schema for that user. A schema is a logical container for the database ob5ects 'such as tables- views- triggers- and so on( that the user creates. The schema name is the same as the user name- and can be used to unambiguousl% refer to ob5ects owned b% the user.
What Is a $ser &ole?
 A user role is a group of privileges. "rivileges are assigned to users through user roles. 0ou create new roles- grant privileges to the roles- and then grant roles to users.
What is a Database Schema?
 A schema is a collection of logical structures of data- or schema ob5ects. A schema is owned b% a database user and has the same name as that user. ach user owns a single schema. #chema ob5ects can be created and manipulated with #Q4 and include: tables- views- and other t%pes of data ob5ects.
What Is a Database )able?
 A database table is a basic unit of data logical storage in an Oracle database. Data is stored in rows and columns. 0ou define a table with a table name- such as emplo%ees- and a set of columns. 0ou give each column a column name- such as emplo%ee7id- last7name- and 5ob7id8 a datat%pe- such as +A*9A*;- DAT- or 3)<B*8 and a width. The width can be predetermined b% the datat%pe- as in DAT. f columns are of the 3)<B* datat%pe- define precision and scale instead of width. A row is a collection of column information corresponding to a single record.
What Is a )able In(e*?
nde2 is an optional structure associated with a table that allow #Q4 statements to e2ecute more 6uic,l% against a table. =ust as the inde2 in this manual helps %ou locate information faster than if there were no inde2- an Oracle Database inde2 provides a faster access path to table data. 0ou can use inde2es without rewriting an% 6ueries. 0our results are the same- but %ou see them more 6uic,l%.
What Is an Oracle )ablespace?
 An Oracle tablespace is a big unit of logical storage in an Oracle database. t is managed and used b% the Oracle server to store structures data ob5ects- li,e tables and inde2es.ach tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more files called datafiles- which are ph%sical structures that conform to the operating s%stem in which Oracle is running.
What Is an Oracle Data File?
 An Oracle data file is a big unit of ph%sical storage in the O# file s%stem. One or man% Oracle data files are organi$ed together to provide ph%sical storage to a single Oracle tablespace.

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