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Introduction of Core Sampling in Oil & Gas Industry - Wikipedia

Introduction of Core Sampling in Oil & Gas Industry - Wikipedia

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Published by Faiz Ahmad

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Published by: Faiz Ahmad on Oct 29, 2009
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Core sample
 
Core sample. The product of a Diamond rig
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A
core sample
is a cylindrical section of a naturallyoccurring medium consistent enough to hold alayered structure. Most cores are obtained by drillinginto the medium, for example the earth, with ahollow steel tube called a corer. The hole made forthe core sample is called a core hole. A variety of corers exist to sample different media underdifferent conditions. More continue to be invented.In the coring process the sample is pushed more orless intact into the tube. Removed from the tube inthe laboratory, it is inspected and analyzed bydifferent techniques and equipment depending onthe type of data desired. Analysis is generally non-destructive of most of the sample.
Contents
1 Methods
2 Management of cores and data
3 Layering
4 Informational value of core samples
5 See also
6 External links
Methods
gravity coring
, in which the core sampler is dropped into the sample
drilling
vibracoring
, in which the sampler is vibrated to allow penetration into thixotropic media.
Management of cores and data
Coring is the method to retrieve cores samples from the ground. Coring is often utilised in ocean drillingand surveying. Scientist often using coring to acquire
core samples
for study.Drilling equipment is often used for coring. Rock core is often taken during mineral explorationoperations to help determine the rock type and amount of mineralisation present. A diamondimpregnated core bit is used which is rotated to cut an annulus of rock, producing a rock core whichextends through the bit into the core barrel. In a wireline system, the core barrel can be retrieved using awire cable that is run inside the drill rods. Thus, the drill rods do not have to be removed from thePage 1 of 3Core sample - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Core_sample&printable=yes
 
borehole each time a core run is complete. Diamond coring can be carried out to depth of 2000m usingconventional mineral exploration drilling equipment. Core can be recovered from deeper wells but theoperation becomes more expensive.The technique of coring long predates attempts to drill into the Earth’s mantle by the Deep Sea DrillingProgram. The value to oceanic and other geologic history of obtaining cores over a wide area of seafloors soon became apparent. Core sampling by many scientific and exploratory organizations expandedrapidly. To date hundreds of thousands of core samples have been collected from floors of all theplanet’s oceans and many of its inland waters.Access to many of these samples is facilitated by the Index to Marine & Lacustrine Geological Samples,"A collaboration between twenty institutions and agencies that operate geological repositories."The above agency keeps a record of the samples held in the repositories of its member organizations.Data includes"Lithography, texture, age, principal investigator, province, weathering/metamorphism, glassremarks and descriptive comments"
Layering
Any natural medium at or under the Earth’s surface or other body that is consistent enough to maintain asolid or semi-solid structure is layered. The layering comes from successive deposition or growth in timeof structural or compositional variants of the medium.Most familiar to us are the layers of the Earth’s surface on which the geologic history of the surface isbased; for example, the Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, etc. Each layer in this case contains distinctivefossils generated by the evolution of species. Layers often are divided into sublayers.Layering is more pervasive than the broad outline of the Geologic Time Scale leads us to believe. Anychange in environment causes a new layer to be deposited. A succession of plant species in a region, forexample, causes a succession of layers containing different pollen in ice and mud. Variation in rainfallcauses tree rings to be of different widths.
Informational value of core samples
Scientific coring began as a method of sampling the ocean floor. It soon expanded to lakes, ice, mud,soil and wood. Cores on very old trees give information about their growth rings without destroying thetree.Cores indicate variations of climate, species and sedimentary composition during geologic history. Thedynamic phenomena of the Earth’s surface are for the most part cyclical in a number of ways, especiallytemperature and rainfall.There are many ways to date a core. Once dated, it gives valuable information about changes of climateand terrain. For example, cores in the ocean floor, soil and ice have altered the view of the geologichistory of the Pleistocene entirely.Page 2 of 3Core sample - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia8/3/2009http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Core_sample&printable=yes

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