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MB0027 Human Resource Management_set 1 complete

MB0027 Human Resource Management_set 1 complete

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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1MB0027 – HRM - 4 Credits(Book ID: B0909)Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.Q.1 Write a short note on Hawthorne Studies.
Frederick Taylor, who died in 1915, did not live to see the employee motivation studies thatwere conducted at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant, near Chicago, Illinois, from 1927 to1932. However, the founder of the scientific school of management would have no doubtbeen interested in the results. The Hawthorne studies undercut a core pillar of Taylorism--the notion that workers were motivated purely by economic gain.Researchers from Western Electric and Harvard University led the Hawthorne studies.(General Electric originally contributed funding, but they withdrew after the first trial wascompleted.) The studies were intended to examine the influence of environmental variableson a group of production workers. The group of workers was divided into two subgroups: atest group, which would undergo environmental changes, and a control group. The membersof the control group would work under normal, constant environment conditions.The researchers began by manipulating the lighting of the test group. When lighting for thetest group was increased, their productivity increased--but the productivity of the controlgroup increased, as well. This result was somewhat unexpected, since the lighting at theworkstations of the control group had not been altered.The researchers then decreased the lighting at the test group’s workstations. Surprisingly,both the test group and the control group continued to improve their productivity. There wereno decreases in productivity until the light was reduced to the point where the workers couldbarely see. The researchers concluded that light did not have a significant impact on themotivation of production workers. This led General Electric, a light bulb manufacturer, towithdraw their funding.The next experiment utilized a mainstay of scientific management: incentive-based,piecework system. The researchers expected, according to the conventional wisdom of theday, that this would inspire the employees to dramatically increase their pace. However,rather than working as fast as they could individually, the workers calibrated themselves as agroup. Employees who worked more slowly than average were derided as “chiselers.”Employees who attempted to work faster than the group were called “rate busters.” In other words, any significant deviation from the collectively imposed norm was punished.These results were, of course, a major blow to the position of scientific management, whichheld that employees were only motivated by individual economic interest. The Hawthornestudies drew attention to the social needs as an additional source of motivation. Taylor’semphasis on economic incentives was not wholly discredited, but economic incentives werenow viewed as one factor--not the sole factor--to which employees responded.
Q.2 Trace the growth of Trade Union Movement from Factories Act 1881 to FactoriesAct 1948.
The growth of trade unions in India started way back in 1850 when the economic conditionsof labor was poor, The industry was dominated by the Capitalism, and the industrialists weremore concerned about the productivity. Long working hours, Low wedges, poor livingconditions and exploitation by the management was common in the industry. Slowly in manyparts of the country the workforces united and Factories Act 1881 was incorporated with aban on Child labor, and conditions in working hours and improved working conditions.In next phase many trade unions were incorporated in the country under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in other parts of the country like West Bangal, Ahamdabad, Punjab andothers. All India trade union federation was formed. After independence this took the shapeof Indian Factory Act 1948 with regulation on working conditions, working hours, and other facilities at workplace.
Q.3 Elaborate the HR planning System
Human Resource planning can be defined as a process by which an organization ensuresthat it has the right number and kinds of people, at the right place, at the right time, capableof effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve itsoverall objectives or in other words HRP can be defined as planning for the future personnelneeds of an organization, taking into account both internal activities and factors in theexternal environment.Need and Importance of HRPHuman resource Planning translates the organization objectives and plans into the number of workers needed to meet these objectives. The need and importance of HRP is as follows:HRP helps in determining the future manpower requirements and avoids problems like
 over staffing or understaffing in the organization. HRP helps in tackling with the factors
 like competition, technology, government policies etc. that generates changes in the job
content, skill requirements and number and types of personnel required. Now a days
 there is a demand of exceptional intellectual skills while the existing staff becomesredundant, the HR manager has to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel and alsorequired to deal with issues like career development, succession planning for which he takesthe help of HRP. A proper and realistic human resource plan is needed to ensure equal
 employment and promotional appointments to the candidates fro weaker sections, physicallyhandicapped and socially and politically oppressed citizens. HRP provides valuable and
 timely information for various designing and execution of personnel functions likerecruitment, selection, transfers, promotions, layoffs, training and development andperformance appraisal. It helps the organization to anticipate imbalance in human
 resources, which in turn will facilitate reduction in personal costs. HRP facilitates planning
 for future needs which will help in better planning of assignments to develop managers andto ensure the organization has a steady supply of experienced and skilled employees.Factors affecting Human Resource PlanningHRP is a dynamic and on going process. The process of updating is not very simple, sinceHRP is influenced by many factors, which are as follows: The type of organization
 determines the production process and number and type of staff needed. The human
 resource needs of an organization depend on the strategic plan adopted by it. For e.g. thegrowth of a business calls for hiring of additional labor, while mergers will need a plan for layoffs. Organization operates under different political, social environment and has to
 carefully formulate the HR policies and so the HR manager has to evolve suitablemechanism to deal with uncertainties through career developments, succession planning,retirement schemes etc. HRP also depends on the time periods and accordingly the short
 and long-term plans are adopted. And this time span is based on the degree of environmental uncertainties. The type and quality of information used in making
 forecasting is an important factor influencing HRP. Accurate and timely human resourceinformation system helps in getting better quality personnel. HRP is required to ensure

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