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7 Probability(MAS)

7 Probability(MAS)

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Published by: dupleh on Apr 14, 2014
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7.PROBABILITY7.1.1 Sample Space and Events
Task A: Determine the number of possible outcomes in the sample space and the event by listing the outcomes.1. An experiment is conducted by rolling a fair dice once. If A is the event of getting an even score, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event A, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event A.Ans"er : a!i! # $ % & a!ii! A $ % & b!i! n#! $ b!ii! nA! $'. In an experiment "here a fair coin is tossed t"ice, (T represents an outcome "here the first toss results in a )head* and the second toss results in a )tail*. If + is the event of obtaining at least one )tail*, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event +, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event +.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! + $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! n+! $. A card is picked randomly from the follo"ing cards.If - is the event of obtaining vo"el, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event -, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event -.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! - $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! n-! $. In an experiment, t"o numbers are randomly chosen, the first from set A $ % , / , 0 and the second from set + $ % ' ,  , 2&. If D is the event of  getting a total score at least 13, a! express, in set notation, 45ote : x , y! represents an outcome "here x
 A and y
 + i! the sample space, ii! the event D, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event D.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! D $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! nD! $
Ans"ers:1. # $ %1,',,,/,0&6 A $ %',,0&6 n#! $ 06 nA! $ '. # $ %((,(T,T(,TT&6 + $ %(T,T(,TT&6 n#! $ 6 n+! $ '. # $ %(,7,+,A,T&6 - $ %7,A&6 n#! $ /6 n-! $ '. # $ %,'!,,!,,2!,/,'!,/,!,/,2!,0,'!,0,!,0,2!& 6 n#! $ 8 D $ %,2!,/,2!,0,!,0,2!& nD! $
 Probability
1
(7+AT
a.7xperiment is an activity that "e carry out to observe a result. b.9utcome is the result of an experiment that "e observed.c.#ample space is set of all the possible outcomes or results! in an experimentd.The sample space is denoted by the letter
.e.7vent is the set of all the possible outcomes or results! in the sample space that "e "ish to get.f.An event can be denoted by any capital letters except
 .g.n
! denotes the number of possible outcomes in the sample space.hnA denotes the number of ossible outcomes in the event A.
 
Task +:Determine the number possible outcomes in the sample space and the event "ithout listing the outcomes.1. A box contains  black balls, ' green balls and / red balls. A  ball is dra"n at random from the box. If A represents the event not getting the black  balls, determine a! n#!, b! nA!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nA! $'. A box contains cards of "hich each card is "ritten "ith an alphabet from the "ord )TA+A(A5*. A card is dra"n at random from the box. If + represents the event of obtaining vo"el card, determine a! n#!, b! n+!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n+! $. The table sho"s a set of numbers. A number is chosen at random from the set.13111/1;''1810'/12 If - represents the event of choosing number that is multiple of /, determine a! n#!, b! n-!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n-! $. There are 1 fans in a hall, each controlled by a s"itch. It is kno"n that four fans are spoilt. T"o s"itches are turned on at random in an experiment. <iven that D is the event "here only one of the t"o fans "orks, determine a! n#!, b! nD!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nD! $/. The letters from the "ord )#=>A5* are to be used to form a five?lettered code. All the possible codes are "ritten in cards and put in a box. A card is dra"n from the box. If 7 represents the event of getting code "hich has both the vo"els next to each other, determine a! n#!, b! nD!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n7! $0. A box contains ; blue marbles and / yello" marbles "here all the marbles are of the same si@e. T"o marbles are dra"n from the  box randomly. If  is the event getting t"o marbles of the same colour, determine a! n#!, b! n!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n! $;. our?digit numbers are to be formed from the digits ', , 0, ; and 8 "ithout repetitions of digits. All the numbers that can  be formed are "ritten in small  pieces of papers and put into a hat. 9ne number is chosen at random from the hat. If < is the event getting even number, determine a! n#!, b! n<!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n<! $2. A ?member committee of a club is chosen from  boys and  girls. 7ach of the possible ?member committee formed is "ritten on a card and put into a  box. 9ne of the cards is dra"n at random from the box. If ( represents the event of obtaining a committee that has eBual number of boys and girls, determine a! n#!, b! n(!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n(! $8. -ode "ords are to be formed using all the letters of the "ord )-9C=5*. 7ach of the  possible code "ords is "ritten in a small strip of paper and put into a bag. 9ne of the code "ords is chosen from the bag at random. If C represents the event of obtaining code "ord that begins "ith a consonant, determine a! n#!, b! nC!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nC! $
Ans"ers : 1. a! 13 b! ;'. a! 2 b! . a! 8 b! . a! 81 b! 3/. a! 1'3 b! 20. a! 00 b! 1 ;. a! 1'3 b! ;'2. a! / b! 128. a! ;'3 b! 23
 Probability
'
 
7.1.2 Probabilit o! an Event
Task A: Determine the robability of #imple 7vents.1. A bag contains ; red balls, / green balls and 0 pink balls. A  ball is picked at random. ind the probability that a red ball is  picked.Ans"er : E $ 7vent red ball is picked
 n(R) = 7, n(S) = 18
 
12;!!!
==
n Rn R P 
'. A card is picked randomly from a pack of cards "hich contains  red cards and 0 yello" cards. ind the probability that a yello" card is picked.Ans"er : 
 $ 7vent of picking yello" card
 n(Y) = n(S) =
==
!!!
nY  nY   P 
/,
. A letter is selected at random from the "ord )(F#I-#*. ind the probability of selecting letter
.Ans"er : 
 A
 $ 7vent of selecting letter
 
n
 A
! $
n
! $ 
==
!!!
n An A P 
;'
 Probability
a!The probability that an event
 A
 occurs is represented by
 P 
 A
! b!+y classical definition,
( ) ( )( )
n Aninoutcomesof  number   Ainoutcomesof  number   A P 
 ==
 , "here
( )
13
 
 A P 
 c!If
 P 
 A
! $ 3, then the event is sure to fail or is a certain impossibility!.d!If
 P 
 A
! $ 1. then the event is sure to succeed or is an absolute surety!e!
The probability that an event
 A
 does not occur is represented by
 P 
 A’ 
! "here
 P 
 A’ 
! $ 1 G
 P 
 A
!

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