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7 Probability(MAS)Ratings: (0)|Views: 4|Likes: 0

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kebarangkalian

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/218034846/7-Probability-MAS

04/14/2014

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7.PROBABILITY7.1.1 Sample Space and Events

Task A: Determine the number of possible outcomes in the sample space and the event by listing the outcomes.1. An experiment is conducted by rolling a fair dice once. If A is the event of getting an even score, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event A, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event A.Ans"er : a!i! # $ % & a!ii! A $ % & b!i! n#! $ b!ii! nA! $'. In an experiment "here a fair coin is tossed t"ice, (T represents an outcome "here the first toss results in a )head* and the second toss results in a )tail*. If + is the event of obtaining at least one )tail*, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event +, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event +.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! + $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! n+! $. A card is picked randomly from the follo"ing cards.If - is the event of obtaining vo"el, a! express, in set notation, i! the sample space, ii! the event -, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event -.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! - $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! n-! $. In an experiment, t"o numbers are randomly chosen, the first from set A $ % , / , 0 and the second from set + $ % ' , , 2&. If D is the event of getting a total score at least 13, a! express, in set notation, 45ote : x , y! represents an outcome "here x

∈

A and y

∈

+ i! the sample space, ii! the event D, b! determine the number of possible outcomes in i! the sample space, ii! the event D.Ans"er : a!i! # $ a!ii! D $ b!i! n#! $ b!ii! nD! $

Ans"ers:1. # $ %1,',,,/,0&6 A $ %',,0&6 n#! $ 06 nA! $ '. # $ %((,(T,T(,TT&6 + $ %(T,T(,TT&6 n#! $ 6 n+! $ '. # $ %(,7,+,A,T&6 - $ %7,A&6 n#! $ /6 n-! $ '. # $ %,'!,,!,,2!,/,'!,/,!,/,2!,0,'!,0,!,0,2!& 6 n#! $ 8 D $ %,2!,/,2!,0,!,0,2!& nD! $

Probability

1

(7+AT

a.7xperiment is an activity that "e carry out to observe a result. b.9utcome is the result of an experiment that "e observed.c.#ample space is set of all the possible outcomes or results! in an experimentd.The sample space is denoted by the letter

S

.e.7vent is the set of all the possible outcomes or results! in the sample space that "e "ish to get.f.An event can be denoted by any capital letters except

S

.g.n

S

! denotes the number of possible outcomes in the sample space.hnA denotes the number of ossible outcomes in the event A.

Task +:Determine the number possible outcomes in the sample space and the event "ithout listing the outcomes.1. A box contains black balls, ' green balls and / red balls. A ball is dra"n at random from the box. If A represents the event not getting the black balls, determine a! n#!, b! nA!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nA! $'. A box contains cards of "hich each card is "ritten "ith an alphabet from the "ord )TA+A(A5*. A card is dra"n at random from the box. If + represents the event of obtaining vo"el card, determine a! n#!, b! n+!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n+! $. The table sho"s a set of numbers. A number is chosen at random from the set.13111/1;''1810'/12 If - represents the event of choosing number that is multiple of /, determine a! n#!, b! n-!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n-! $. There are 1 fans in a hall, each controlled by a s"itch. It is kno"n that four fans are spoilt. T"o s"itches are turned on at random in an experiment. <iven that D is the event "here only one of the t"o fans "orks, determine a! n#!, b! nD!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nD! $/. The letters from the "ord )#=>A5* are to be used to form a five?lettered code. All the possible codes are "ritten in cards and put in a box. A card is dra"n from the box. If 7 represents the event of getting code "hich has both the vo"els next to each other, determine a! n#!, b! nD!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n7! $0. A box contains ; blue marbles and / yello" marbles "here all the marbles are of the same si@e. T"o marbles are dra"n from the box randomly. If is the event getting t"o marbles of the same colour, determine a! n#!, b! n!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n! $;. our?digit numbers are to be formed from the digits ', , 0, ; and 8 "ithout repetitions of digits. All the numbers that can be formed are "ritten in small pieces of papers and put into a hat. 9ne number is chosen at random from the hat. If < is the event getting even number, determine a! n#!, b! n<!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n<! $2. A ?member committee of a club is chosen from boys and girls. 7ach of the possible ?member committee formed is "ritten on a card and put into a box. 9ne of the cards is dra"n at random from the box. If ( represents the event of obtaining a committee that has eBual number of boys and girls, determine a! n#!, b! n(!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!n(! $8. -ode "ords are to be formed using all the letters of the "ord )-9C=5*. 7ach of the possible code "ords is "ritten in a small strip of paper and put into a bag. 9ne of the code "ords is chosen from the bag at random. If C represents the event of obtaining code "ord that begins "ith a consonant, determine a! n#!, b! nC!.Ans"ers : a! n#! $b!nC! $

Ans"ers : 1. a! 13 b! ;'. a! 2 b! . a! 8 b! . a! 81 b! 3/. a! 1'3 b! 20. a! 00 b! 1 ;. a! 1'3 b! ;'2. a! / b! 128. a! ;'3 b! 23

Probability

'

7.1.2 Probabilit o! an Event

Task A: Determine the robability of #imple 7vents.1. A bag contains ; red balls, / green balls and 0 pink balls. A ball is picked at random. ind the probability that a red ball is picked.Ans"er : E $ 7vent red ball is picked

n(R) = 7, n(S) = 18

12;!!!

==

S n Rn R P

'. A card is picked randomly from a pack of cards "hich contains red cards and 0 yello" cards. ind the probability that a yello" card is picked.Ans"er :

Y

$ 7vent of picking yello" card

n(Y) = n(S) =

==

!!!

S nY nY P

/,

. A letter is selected at random from the "ord )(F#I-#*. ind the probability of selecting letter

S

.Ans"er :

A

$ 7vent of selecting letter

S

n

A

! $

n

S

! $

==

!!!

S n An A P

;'

Probability

a!The probability that an event

A

occurs is represented by

P

A

! b!+y classical definition,

( ) ( )( )

S n AnS inoutcomesof number
Ainoutcomesof number
A P

==

, "here

( )

13

≤≤

A P

c!If

P

A

! $ 3, then the event is sure to fail or is a certain impossibility!.d!If

P

A

! $ 1. then the event is sure to succeed or is an absolute surety!e!

The probability that an event

A

does not occur is represented by

P

A’

! "here

P

A’

! $ 1 G

P

A

!

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