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16: Salivary Gland Dev. and Structure (complete)

16: Salivary Gland Dev. and Structure (complete)

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4/8/14
4/8/14

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Transcribed by Albert Cheng 4/8/14
Salivary Gland Development and Structure
 by Dr. Wishe
 
 Slide 2: C FIG. 15-7 LOCATION OF SALIVARY GLANDS 4th ED.
The next gland in terms of size happens to be the submandibular gland. That’s located right underneath the
angle of the mandible. And finally in the floor of the oral cavity we have the sublingual gland, which looks
larger than the submandibular but it’s not. Sublingual gland is actually in the floor of the oral cavity. And we’ll get to discuss each one of these shortly.
Slide 3: NANCI TC FIG. 11-1 MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS 7th ED. Besides major salivary glands, there are minor salivary glands, which continuously secrete. And when you look at a minor salivary gland like the buccal glands or palatine glands, they are surrounded by the epithelium of the oral cav
ity…stratified squamous epithelium. Here’s your typical areolar CT lamina  propria and there’s no muscularis mucosa anyplace in the oral cavity. And so here we have some minor
salivary and you can see there are essentially two different cells present. Cells that look a little darker, in reality they contain serous or zymogenic granules. So these are the cells that produce enzymes. And then the lighter staining cells wherever you look are your mucous producing cells. So some parts of your oral cavity have strictly mucous cells, some parts have a combination of mucous and serous. Slide 4: NANCI TC FIG. 11-3 DEVELOPING SALIVARY GLAND 2 EPITHELIAL CORDS 7th ED. This is actually showing you the development of your salivary glands. And from the mesenchyme, you first get the formation of your duct system. And then coming off the duct system are these little buds, almost resembling a balloon and as you blow up the balloon, the bud gets larger and larger and actually forms the alveoli of the gland Slide 5: NANCI TC FIG. 11-4 DEVELOPING SALIVARY GLAND 1 ALVEOLI 7th ED. This is a high power again showing you the duct system. The duct system always hollows out so you
recognize it as a duct and these various areas I’m pointing to now happen to be various alveoli that
are developing. This is all coming from surrounding mesenchyme and ectoderm as well. Slide 6: G&H PLATE 15-2 FIG. 3 SEROUS CELLS 5th ED.
This you’ve seen a number of time. This is your typical serous cells, truncated pyramidal cells…sort of a
simple columnar epithelial cell with your basal located nucleus and your zymogenic granules. Also the serous alveoli have a small lumen Slide 7: NANCI TC FIG. 11-11 SEROUS CELL 7th ED.
Here we have a diagrammatic version of your serous cells. Here’s the nucleus.
These are the serous granules and what happens is that these granules, they get swayed to the surface and they connect with the
cell membrane and then are just released outside the cell. The other you will notice…these structures…so
the serous cells are linked together in a tight fashion by your desmosome. And this keeps the cell
together…prevents any leakage from occurring. As you look in the rest of the cells, something like this is
your Golgi apparatus. You can see some mitochondria and these other elongated structures within the dots
represent your rER. So you’re producing enzymes alias proteins, you are dealing with rER. And then the
material is sent to the Golgi for packaging and eventually you get the formation of serous granules. Look at the base of these cells, they seem to have microvilli. They are basal infoldings and these folds can extend
from one area to another. So it’s an interconnecting area within the cell as well as between cells. With these
infoldings, you have increase surface area. So wh
at’s actually happening is the capillaries underneath the  base of this cell is bringing in fluid with appropriate electrolytes…other goodies and then this fluid with the other goodies makes its way into the cell and that’s why you would have such an increa
se in surface area. And then everything is used to produce your serous granules
 
Slide 8: NANCI TC FIG. 11-12 MUCOUS CELLS 7th ED. In comparison, these are your mucous cells. As you look at the mucus cells, the cells look washed-out.
They’re really carb
ohydrate in nature and if you use like PAS staining, you can see the cytoplasm much
more prominent or evident. The nuclei are at the base and they’re kind of flattened in nature. And also the
lumen of the mucus alveoli happens to be much larger than those of the serous alveoli. Slide 9: NANCI TC FIG. 11-15 MUCOUS CELL 7th ED.
Here’s your diagrammatic version. Similar to the serous cells, these droplets contain mucus and not enzymes. And again, they’re going to fuse with the cell membrane and then eventually release to the outside…sort of like exocytosis process. Here’s the nucleus at the base and it’s rather flattened in nature. The cells also have organelles. You can see some mitochondria present. Here’s your rER…that’s the Golgi
apparatus and the nucleus is elongated in nature. These cells are also held together tightly by desmosomes to prevent any sort of leakage from happening. You look at the base of this cell, you can see some infoldings but not as much as in the serous cells Slide 10: SEROUS CELL C FIG. 15-5 MUCOUS CELL C FIG. 15-6 4th ED.
Here’s a comparison of the two cell types. Here’s your serous cell and here’s your mucous cell. They’re
somewhat similar in shape. Serous cell
has your round circular nucleus, there’s your flat nucleus of the
mucus. And both cells do have organelles. Slide 11:
 
 NANCI TC FIG. 11-33 SALIVARY GLAND ORGANIZATION
So there’s the general introduction in terms of the types of cells you are going to find associated with the
major and the minor salivary glands. Now I like to discuss the functions of the salivary glands. Number 1,
they’re going to
maintain the integrity, the well being of the oral cavity. And if you have a deficiency in the
amount of saliva being produced, you’re gonna have problems with lubrication, swallowing, speaking etc.
And this you can easily see when you talk to an elderly patient. So saliva provides a fluid environment, which lubrication takes place. You have a medium for swallowing and the food begins to solubilize, which
means it begins to break down…become more liquid and not so solid in nature. The saliva acts as a buffe
r.
It’s a buffer to acidity, temperature, or other stresses. And yes when you’re eating a slice of pizza, it’s suppose to bring your temperature down but you’re consuming the pizza so quickly that there’s not enough
time to drop the temperature
so you don’t burn your palate. But nevertheless, it’s still a buffer. The pH in terms of the oral cavity is around a 8, when you get to the stomach you’re at a 3, and when you get to the small intestine it becomes more of a 8 again. So you’re having a switch back
 between different pH environment. The saliva is protective in nature. One type of protection is to lubricate the oral cavity, it sort
of gives you a mucus coating and that’s your protection. When it comes to bacteria, it causes the bacteria to
clump together and once the bacteria clump together, it becomes difficult to adhere to the tooth enamel. The other type of protection is against minor trauma, it acts as a barrier, protection against microbial toxins,
resist wear and tear. And let’s not forget the protec
tive nature in terms of the presence of bacteria by
causing the bacteria to clump together; that’s an important function. The process of chemical digestion
 begins in the oral cavity and here you have your serous cells releasing enzymes, which begins the digestion
of carbohydrates. So you’ll find enzymes like maltase which tends to break down carbohydrates to maltose
and then your salivary amylase breaks down your C-12 sugar down to C-6 sugar like glucose. So the  process of digestion of carbohydrates has just begun. Then we have the function of taste. Now your taste
can distinguish between something that tastes good and things that don’t taste good. If it doesn’t taste good, you don’t eat it. In terms of protection against the growth of mic
roorganisms besides the mucus, we
have other factors that play an important role. One is lysozyme and from the name you know it’s an
enzyme. And when this enzyme is released by your serous cells, it tends to affect
the bacterial’s
 membrane
 permeability…it messes it up. And
 eventually leads to the death of the bacteria. Another substance called lactoferrin binds iron. And the significance of this is that certain bacteria require iron to survive and if you remove the iron from the oral cavity, these special groups of bacteria
don’t make it and die off. So you’re really inhibiting bacterial growth again. Then there’s another enzyme called lactoperoxidase and this
enzyme actually goes into the bacterial cell and modifies bacterial enzymes so that bacterial growth is inhibited. Immunoglobulins have the same effect as mucus does, it causes the bacteria to clump together
and then the bacteria are unable to stick to your enamel. Tooth integrity is something one doesn’t normally think of…when primary dentin formation is complete, the
 tooth has erupted into the oral cavity. You have your clinical crown, the enamel is covering and protecting the tooth but the enamel is not fully mineralized.
 
So what happens later on during the developmental process, the saliva contributes calcium to further mineralized the enamel tissue. Saliva can be used as a monitor just like blood. With regards to blood, the doctor takes a sample of blood, sends it to the lab, and you get a chemical printout of the various things in your blood like glucose, sodium, alkaline phosphatase etc. With the saliva, the problem is that you have to spit into a tube, collect enough saliva,
and then that’s sent out for analysis. Now you can detect certain
things in saliva like if somebody is taking a psychoactive or anti-epileptic drug. You can detect certain
environmental agents such as mercury, if you’ve been exposed to it. So you’re able to make some sort of disease diagnosis and maybe it’ll lead to a treatment plan and prevention just like the blood test. Again you’ll have a
spill over of hormones especially your sex hormones. If you have too much hormones in your saliva, something is wrong with the system. Lipids are produced and released in your oral cavity. But
there’s two groups of people: caries
-resistant and caries-prone group. Each group has different lipids and concentrations. Caries susceptible group will have more lipids and the concentrations of the lipids will be greater. We already mentioned about the bleeding of the oral tissue, unlike bleeding on the skin, you get the formation of a wet-gelatinous clot which takes place much faster than the dry skin scab formation. But the gel-
like clot will continue to ooze for hours or even a day or more…so you do have to be careful with that.
We have epidermal growth factors present in saliva and just like in the rest of the body; it promotes healing and shortening clotting time. And then we briefly mentioned yesterday about the salivary glands of other
animals such as the dog with the panting…that’s the dog’s AC system. And fin
ally with the poisonous reptiles, the poison is actually released by the salivary glands. We can classify salivary glands in a number of ways. One is location. Is it in the vestibule or is it in the oral cavity proper? And we saw yesterday when we spoke about the vestibule, you find the labial glands associated with the lips, buccal glands associated
with the cheek, your parotid gland…they all release their secretions in the vestibule. The rest of the glands
release their secretions into the oral cavity proper such as the glands in the tongue, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, the floor of the mouth etc palate (hard and soft). We can classify glands according to size, major or minor And the major glands are of course your parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The parotid tends to develop first like during weeks 4-6. The submandibular tends to come in during week 6 and the sublingual is the last to develop about weeks 8-12. The smaller minor glands also develop around weeks 8-12. With regards to
the major glands, they secrete under some stimulus whether it’s chemical, thermal, or mechanical it doesn’t matter. And all these glands are paired. They’re divided into lobes…that makes them lobated…they’re divided into lobules which makes them lobulated
 and the smallest subunit
happens to be the alveoli. So they’re paired, lobated, lobulated alveolar glands. And all the major glands
 begin to develop as mixed glands, but in the adult the parotid gland is purely serous. The submandibular gland is mixed, mo
stly serous. The sublingual is mixed but mostly mucus. That’s why I started off with the
discussion about serous versus mucus cells. The minor glands tend to continouously secrete. And a lot of the minor glands that you find associated with the tongue are
now referred to as von Ebner’s glands. That’s
an example of a minor gland. The diagram that you see on the screen is showing you different types of arrangement of the cells. First of all realize that for the most part, the major glands namely the parotid and submandibular are surrounded by a well-developed connective tissue. The connective tissue enters the glands forming connective tissue septa or trabeculae and the gland is now divided into lobes, lobules, and finally alveoli. And around the alveoli you tend to find these reticular fibers. However, the sublingual gland has a poorly-
developed capsule, it doesn’t need it because it’s buried in the floor of the oral cavity. So the
connective tissue of the floor of the oral cavity is surrounding that particular gland. [Refer to picture below] When you look at this diagram, this is an example of a serous alveolus. You can see the nuclei are at the  base are round and circular in nature. If you look at the apex of these cells, you see these little dots. Those are the serous zymogenic granules. So this structure represents the serous alveolus. The alveolus could
consist of all mucus cells…we don’t really have that illustrated over here but we have this situation illustrated. And that’s where you have mucus alveolus
 
essentially and that’s this particular part and then you’ll notice something sitting on top of it. Like you’re wearing a baseball cap. This
 is called a serous demilune and these cells are serous cells. This combination of mucus alveoli with serous demilune on top, you have 2 types of secretions released. One the mucin into the lumen and two from the serous cells, the enzymes. They pass into the lumen and eventually into a narrow duct called the intercalated duct illustrated right over here. We will talk about the duct momentarily. A number of intercalated duct come together and they form this larger duct known as your striated, secretory duct. And then the secretory duct from a number of different area join up and form your excretory duct which carries the secretion to the oral cavity.
Slide 12: C FIG 15-8 PAROTID GLAND 4th ED.

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