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Subject: Human Resources Management
taking on the task. Accordingly, the behavior of the person is determined. The factors that contribute towards determining the level of expectancy include self-
efficacy (person’s self
-belief) and goal difficulty (range of difficulties that can be faced). b.
It is the belief that a person will receive an award or be rewarded for the performance that he has given. Performance relates to outcome and the reward depends on this outcomes. There can be promotion, sense of accomplishment of tasks, increase in pay package or recognition within the organization. The factors that control instrumentality are trust, control and policies. All these three need to be there to believe that the performance given will reap in positive results. The person needs to trust the leaders who control the reward system. The policies that are referred to while selecting the best performances also need to be explained properly. c.
This refers to the value that one places on the rewards that are given as the results are declared. The outcome of the results are dependent on the
performer’s trust, goal attainment behavior, need and desire to achieve that
specific result and the various sources of motivation. These all contribute to the values that a person shows when the rewards are given. The theory has been criticized by many such as Graen (1969), Lawler (1971), Lawler and Porter (1967) and Porter and Lawler (1968). According to them, the theory will only work when the employee will believe that the rewards will be beneficial and will cater to their immediate needs. Promotions cannot be forced as well as may not be given in the form that has been desired.