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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

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Published by ClassOf1.com
"Troubled with marketing management assignment in college? Reach out to us at http://classof1.com/homework-help/human-resource-management-homework-help/

Expectancy Theory of Motivation:
The document describes the expectancy theory of motivation. It describes the 3 components of the theory, which includes expectancy, instrumentality and valence."
"Troubled with marketing management assignment in college? Reach out to us at http://classof1.com/homework-help/human-resource-management-homework-help/

Expectancy Theory of Motivation:
The document describes the expectancy theory of motivation. It describes the 3 components of the theory, which includes expectancy, instrumentality and valence."

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Published by: ClassOf1.com on Apr 16, 2014
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uman Resources Management
 
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The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
Subject: Human Resources Management
 
xpectancy Theory of Motivation
The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is defined as the process wherein an individual decided to behave or act in a certain manner as they are motivated to choose a specific behavior type. This behavior type can be selected due to the expectancy of getting positive results or otherwise. In other words, a person is motivated to behave in the specified manner owning the fact that the outcome that is desired is pre-determined and should be according to what has already been decided. However, there can be difference in the actual outcome than from the determining process and the factors contributing towards selecting the same due to the fact that cognitive process of determination may influence the motivational elements. Expectancy theory is mainly about mental processes of making a selection or a choice that may be influenced by external factors or due to certain expectations that lie in the mind. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation was drafted and proposed by Victor Vroom of
the Yale School of Management. According to him, “This theory emphasizes the
needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that
the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients.”
 
The three components of the theory:
a.
 
Expectancy:
Expectancy is mainly the belief that an individual has the efforts taken will result in affirmative and help in achieve the desired goals. This
element is mainly based on a person’s past experiences, level
of confidence and the perceived level of difficulties that the person may have to go through before
 
 *
The Homework solutions from Classof1 are intended to help students understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of their academic submissions for grades.
Subject: Human Resources Management
 
taking on the task. Accordingly, the behavior of the person is determined. The factors that contribute towards determining the level of expectancy include self-
efficacy (person’s self 
-belief) and goal difficulty (range of difficulties that can be faced).  b.
 
Instrumentality:
 It is the belief that a person will receive an award or be rewarded for the performance that he has given. Performance relates to outcome and the reward depends on this outcomes. There can be promotion, sense of accomplishment of tasks, increase in pay package or recognition  within the organization. The factors that control instrumentality are trust, control and policies. All these three need to be there to believe that the performance given will reap in positive results. The person needs to trust the leaders who control the reward system. The policies that are referred to while selecting the best performances also need to be explained properly. c.
 
 Valence:
 This refers to the value that one places on the rewards that are given as the results are declared. The outcome of the results are dependent on the
performer’s trust, goal attainment behavior, need and desire to achieve that
specific result and the various sources of motivation. These all contribute to the  values that a person shows when the rewards are given. The theory has been criticized by many such as Graen (1969), Lawler (1971), Lawler and Porter (1967) and Porter and Lawler (1968). According to them, the theory will only work when the employee will believe that the rewards will be beneficial and will cater to their immediate needs. Promotions cannot be forced as well as may not be given in the form that has been desired.

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