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Methods of Research

Methods of Research

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Published by: Green Meadow on Oct 30, 2009
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10/05/2010

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THEEXPERIMENTAT
METHOD
Is
osyslemolic
ond
scientific
opprooch
to
resecrch
in
which
thereseorchermonipulotesone
or
morevoriobles,
ond
controls
nd
meosures
ony
chonge
in
othervoriobles.AimofExperimenlolMethod
Experiments
ore
donetobe obletopredictphenomeno.
Typicolly,
on
experiment
is
constructedto
find
some
kind
of
ousotion.Chqrocferislics
of
experimenlqlmelhod
o
Comporisonof
groups
Monipulotionof the
independentvorioble
Rondomizotionldentifyingo reseorch problem
Plonning
onexperimentolreseorchsiudy
Conducting
theexperiment
o
Anolyzing
ihe
doio
Writing
the
poper/presentotion
describingthe
findingsTypesof
voriobles
'
Independent
voriobles
-
conditions
or
chorocteristics
thot
on experimentermonipulotes
orcontrols
 
Dependent
voriobles
-
condilions
or
chorocteristics
thoioppeor,
disoppeor,
or
chonge
os
theexperimenterintroduces,removes,
or
chongesindependent
voriobles
o
confounding
voriobles
-
ospectsof
o
study
or
somple
thoi
mightinfluence
thedependentvorioble
ono wnose
effeci
moybe
confusedwith
theeffect
of
ihe
ind.pendent
voriobre
.
Inierveningvoriobles
e
Exircneous
voriobles
'
Inleryeningvoriobles
-
is
o
hypolhelicol
infernolsiote
thot
is
used
to
exploin
relotionships
between
observed
voriobles,such
os
independentonddepencient
voricbles.
o
Extrcneous
vcrioble
-
ore
vcricbles
other
thon
the
independentvorioble
ihct
moy
beor
ony
effect
on
the
behoviorof thesubject
being
studied.Melhods
of
conlrollingexlroneousvoriobles
r
Removing
the
vorioble
.
Rondomizoiion
e
Moiching
coses
r
Boloncing
cosesor
groupmoiching
o
Anolysis
of
covorionceAdvonloges
&
Disqdvonlogesof Experimenlol
Reseorch
1.
Experimentotion
is
o
woy
to
goin
insight
intomethodsof
instruction.
2'
A
perception
exists
thct
informotion
obtoined
throughscientific
method
is
freeof
humon
inconsistencies.
3,
ScientificMethod-HumonConstruction
ond
Humon
Error
4. Reseorcher
doesbring
bios
1o
theexperimentotion
5.
Scmples
moy
noibe
representotive
ofopopulotion.
6.
The
reseorcher
hos
controlover
the
voriobles.
Z.
Artificiol
results
mcy
result.
8. Groupsin
onexperimentmoy
notbecomporoote.
9.
Even
whenrondomizorionofstudenis
is
possibre,probremscrise.
10'
When
o
humon
populotion
is
involved,experimentolreseorchbecomes
concerned
if
behoviorconbepredicted
withvolidity.
I
1.
Experimentotion
con
be combinedwitholher
reseorchmethodsto
ensurerigor.
I2.
Polilicol
pressuredrives
experimentolionond
forcesunrelicble
resurTS.
Pre
Experimentol
Design
Pre-experimentol
deslgns
ore
so
nomedbecouse
theyfollowbosicexpenmentol
steps
.
THE
ONE-SHOTCASE
STUDY
Subjects
orepresented
wiih
some
type
of
treotment,ond
then
outcome
mecsure
is
opplied.
Gool-
to
determine
if
the
treotmenthod
ony
effect
onthe
outcome
Wiihoulo comporisongroup,
it
is
impossible
io
determine
if
the
ouTcomescores
oreonyhigherthonthey
wouldhove
been
withoutthe treotment.wiihout
onypreiest
scores,it
is
impossible
todetermine
if
ony
chonge
withinthe
group
itselfhos
tcken
.
ONEGROUP
PRETESTPOSTTEST
STUDY
lnclusion
of
o
pretesi
todetermine
boseline
scores
we
con
now
of
leost
stote
whether
c
chonqe
in
iheoutcome
or
dependentvorioble
is
tokenploce
whcl
weconnot
soy
is
ifthis
chonge wouldhoveoccuned
even
withouttheopplicotion
of the
ireotment.
.
THE
STATIC
GROUP
COMPARISON
STUDY
Attempts
to
mokeup
for
the lock
of
ocontrolgroup
but
folls
short
in
relotiontoshowing
if
o chonge
hos
occurred.
Does
notincludepretesling
ond therefore
ony
differencebetween
the
two
groups
priir
toihe
study
oreunknown.
1l,rPTcTURE
SA RtcHT)
aa
Sleps
aaa
<l^r
Shrt
Ca6 Sir<t
xc:
on+DroupFr€fasl
aosA6i
Atudy
alto:**k
€nrop
Catr"rrisonStrdy
1l
 
True
Experimenlol
DesignThey
employbothocontrolgroupondo
meons
1o
meosure
thechongethot
occurs
in
born
groups
only
reseorch
methodthot
ccnodequctely
meosure
the
couse
ond effect
relotionship
.
Positest
Equivolent
GroupsStudv
Rondomizotion
ondthe
comporisonof
bothoconlrolond
onexpenmentol
group
ore
utilizedin
ihis
iype
of
study.
while
ihis
is
opproochlng
thebesi
method,
it
folls
shortin
its
lockof
o
pretest
meosure.
Rondomizoliondoeswell
to
mix
subjects
but
itdoesnot
completely
ossure
us
thoi
this
mix
is
truly
creoling
on
equivolencybelweenthetwo
groups.
.
Pretest-Posttest
Equivolent
GroupsStudy
It
is
the
most
effectivemethodbut
olso
the
most
difficurt
to
performQuosi-experimeni
PrSs^t[4ui!d]nt Grorpi
E)t.{}:D,
Fr$esl
Poin
*
Fsivatsni
GmlF
ns.(
c1
ec,(cl
"Quosi"meons
/lkeness
or
resembltng,
so
quosi-experiments
shore
chorocteristicsof trueexperimentswhichseerinterventions
or
ireotments.
The
key
difference
inthis
empiricol
opprooch
is
the
lockof
rondom
ossignment.
Anotherunique
elementofieninvolved
in
this
experimentotion
metbod
is
use
of time
series
onolysis:
interrupted
ond
non-
ntorrr
rnlar]Designof
Quosi-experimenl
l.
ldentifythe
voriobles.
2.
The
quosi-independent
vcrioble
will
be
the
x_voricble.
3
Groupingmeons
two
or
moregroupssuch
os
o
treotmeni
group
ond
c
control
group.
4.
The
predictedoutcome
is
thedependent
vorioble
which
is
they-vorioble.
5'
In
o time
series
onolysis,
thedependentvorioble
is
observedovertimefor
cny
chonges
thot
moy
toke
ptoce.
6'
Once
the voriobles
hovebeenidentifiedonddefined,oprocedure
should
thenbeimplementedond
groupdifferencesshould
be
exomined.Advontoges
o
They
ore
iypicclly
eosier
to
set
up thon
trueexperimentol
designs,
it
tokes
r
ruch
less
effortto
study
ondcompore
subiectsor
groups
of
subjects
thol
oreolreody
noturollyorgonized
thonlohove
ioconduct
rondom
ossiqnment
of
ttnta-ic
o
Utiliiing
quosi-experimentol
designsminimizes
threotstoexternolvolidity
o
Since
quosi-experiments
ore
noturolexperiments,
findingsin
onemoy
beoppliedto
othersubjecls
ond
setiings,
ollowing
for
somegenerclizotions
tobemodeobouipooulotion.
o
lt
is
efficient
in
longitudinolreseorch
thot
involves
longertimeperiods
which
ccn
befollowed
up
in
different
environments.
Disodvonfoges
o
The
control
ollowedihrough
ihe
monipulotion
of the
quosi-independenivoricbleconleod
io
unnoturolcircumstonces,
olthoughthe
dongersofortificiolilyore considerobly
less
relotive
to lrue
experimenls
o
lt
moyollow
studies
tobe
morefecsible,
but
this
olsoposes
monychollengesfor
the
invesiigotor
in
terms
of internolvolidity.
o
Becouse
rondomizotion
is
obsent,some
knowledgeoboutihe
doto
conbeopproximoted,but
conclusions
of
cousol
relotionships
ore difficult
todetermine
Focloriol
Design
o
Foctoriol
Designs
ore
designs
usedextensively
in
educoiionol
reseorch,
becouse
essenliclly
theyorethe
designs
whentwo
or
more
independeni
vorioblesore
included
in
the
design.
o
The
termfoctorrol
is
used
to
indicoiethoi
ollpossible
combinotionsof thefoctorsoreconstoereo.
o
The
bosic
construciion
of
o fociorioi
design
is
thot
oll levels
of
eochindependenivorioble
ore
token
in
combinotionwiththe
levels
of theother
independent
voriobles.
o
The
design
requires
o
minimumof
twoindependent
voriobles,
with
ot
leosl
two
levels
of
eoch vcricble.
O
li
involves
two
or
more
independent
vcriobles,
colled
focfors,in
o
singledesign.
o
The
numberofdifferentgroupsinvolved
in
o foctoriol
design
increoses
veryropidlywith
the
increoseof the numberof
independent
voriobles
ond
number
of
levels.
Advonioges
o
Foctorioldesignprovides
theeconomyof
o
single
designrother
thonseporcte
designs
for
eoch
of the
independeni
voriobles,
ond
itollows
the
reseorcher
to
invesiigote
lhe
interoctions
between
the
voriobles.
O
The
fociorlol
design,
os
well
os
simplifying
the
process
ond
moking reseorch
cheoper,
ollows
mcny
levels
of
onolysis.
Disodvonloge
O
The
moin
disodvcntoge
is
ihe
difficultyof experimentingwithmore
thontwo
foctors,
or
monv
levels.lt hos
tobeplcnned
meticulously,
os
on
error in
one
of
the
levels,
orwill
jeopordizeogreotomount
of
work
STATISTICAT
TOOLSFOR
DATA
ANATYSIS
Stotistics-
Mothemoticolscienceperloining
to
thecollection,
onolysis,
interpretotion
or
explonotion,ond
presentofion
of
Stotisticol
methods
con
be
used
to
summorize
or
descrlbe
o collection
of
doto;
ihis
is
cclied
Descripfive
Stofisllcs
UHfi
thct
ore
then
used
todrow
inferences
crhor
ri
tha
nror-ascor
populotionbeing
studied;
this
is
colled
lnferenfiot,
'::
t/- /
"//
Fffi.
t',,ffi
-,*x,I.rT.r:ip.
 
Non-parametric
-
refers
to
(a
function
on
a
sample) whose
interpretation
does
notdepend
on
the
population
fitting
anyoarameterized
distributions.
ff
you getit wrongyou
riskusing on
incorrectstatisticalprocedureor
you
may
use
o
less
powerful procedure.Non-parametricAny
Any
Ordinalor NominalAnyMedianSimplicity;
Less
affected
by
outliers
Level
of
MeasurementsNominal
-The
lowest measurementlevel.
lt
is
simply
the
placing
of data
into
categories.Ordinal-Next
up
the
list
in
terms
of
power
of
measurement.
The
data
to
be
collected
are
to
be
arrangedin
rank.
Interval
-
The
standard survey rating
scale. This means
that the
differences
in
the
distance alongthe
scale
are definable
in
contrast
to
an
ordinal
scale
wherewe
can
onlytalkabout differences
in
order,notdifferences
in
thedegree of order.
Ratioscale-
is
the
top
level
of
measurement.
The
factor
which clearly defines
a
ratio
scale
is
that
it
has a
true
zeropoint.When
to
Use
a
lf
your
measurement
scale
is
nominalor ordinal thenyou
use
NON-PARAMETRIC
statistics.
a
lfyouare
using
intervalor
ratio
scales
you
use
PARAMETRIC
statistics.
GoalType
of
Data
Measurement(from
Gaussian
Population)Mean,
SD
One-sample
f
test
Unpaired
t
test
Pairedt
test
Compare
three or
more
unmatched
One-way
ANOVA
groups
Compare
three or
more
matched
Repeated-measures ANOVA
groupsQuantifyassociation between
two
Pearson
correlation
Assumed
distribution
Assumed
varianceTypical
dataData
setrelationships
Usual
centralmeasureBenefits
Describe
onegroup
Compare
onegroup
to
a
hypotheticalvalue
Compare
two
unpairedgroups
Compare
two
paired groupsvalue of
thepopulation
Unpaired
two
sample
T
Test
a
The
unpaired
t
methsd testsParametricNormalHomogeneous
Ratio
or
IntervallndependentMean
Can
draw more conclusions
two independen!
random
samples
from
an
approximatelynormal
distribution
are
equal.
a-4:
E(---
---r)=
-rl(-'r,--?r)'
l,:l
rza
-'t-
rr-
-
?
Rank,
Score,
or
Measurement
{from
Non- Gaussian
Population)Median,
range
Wilcoxon
test
Mann-Whitney
test
Wilcoxon
test
Kruskal-Wallis
test
Friedman
test
Spearman
correlation
mean.thenull hypothesis
that the
population
means
related
to
-
where x bar
1
and x bar
2
are
the
sample
means,
s2 is
variables
ONE SAMPTE
TTEST
o
One sample
t-test
is a
statisticalprocedure
that
is
used
to
know
the
mean differencebetween
the
sample
and
the
known
E-u-
 ------:-
4t'i
.)the
pooledsamplevariance,
n1
and
n2
are the sample
sizes
and
t
is
a
quantile
with
n1+n2-
2
degrees
offreedom"
ThePaired
f-test
enables
you
to
determine
whetherthe
means
of
paired
samples are equal.The
termpaired
means
that there
is
a
correspondence between observations
from
each
population.ANOVA
(ANAIYSIS
OF VARTANCE)
a
ANOVA
isa
generaltechnique
that
can be used
to
test
the
hypothesis
that the
means
among
two
ormoregroupsareequal, under the assumption
that
the sampledpopulationsarenormally distributed.
PFARSON's
CORREISTIO|{
COEFFICIEI{T
a
Used
to test
correlation{lineardependence} between
two
variables.
a
tntergreted
as
-1
for
negative linear correlation and
+1
for
positivelinear
correlation.
SPEARMAN's
CORRELAT|ON
COEFfICIENT
a
it
assesses
how
well
an
arbitrary
function
could
describe
the
relationshipbetween
two
'*[(=){?)
p:l*
t1")
t
./l
ariables
without
makin
an
other
assumtions about
the
particularnature of
the
relationshi betweenthe variables

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