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variogram procedure
variogram procedure

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Chapter 70
The VARIOGRAM Procedure
Chapter Table of Contents
OVERVIEW
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3643Introduction to Spatial Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3643
GETTING STARTED
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3644Preliminary Spatial Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3644Preliminary Variogram Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3648Sample Variogram Computation and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3653
SYNTAX
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3656PROC VARIOGRAM Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3657COMPUTE Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3658COORDINATES Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3661DIRECTIONS Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3662VAR Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3662
DETAILS
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3662Theoretical Semivariogram Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3662Theoretical and Computational Details of the Semivariogram . . . . . . . . . 3664Output Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3669Computational Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3673
EXAMPLE
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3674Example 70.1 A Box Plot of the Square Root Difference Cloud . . . . . . . . 3674
REFERENCES
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3677
 
3642
 
 Chapter 70. The VARIOGRAM Procedure 
SAS OnlineDoc 
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: Version 8 
 
Chapter 70
The VARIOGRAM Procedure
Overview
The VARIOGRAMprocedure computes sample or empirical measures of spatial con-tinuity for two-dimensional spatial data. These continuity measures are the regularsemivariogram, a robust version of the semivariogram, and the covariance. The con-tinuity measures are written to an output data set, allowing plotting or parameterestimation for theoretical semivariogram or covariance models. Both isotropic andanisotropic measures are available.The VARIOGRAM procedure produces two additional output data sets that are use-ful in the analysis of pairwise distances in the original data. The OUTPAIR= data setcontains one observation for each pair of points. Thecoordinates, distance, angle, andvalues of the analysis variables are written to this data set. The OUTDISTANCE=data set contains histogram information on the count of pairs within distance inter-vals, which is useful for determining unit lag distances.
Introduction to Spatial Prediction
Spatial prediction, in general, is any prediction method that incorporates spatial de-pendence. A simple and popular spatial prediction method is ordinary kriging.Ordinary kriging requires a model of the spatial continuity, or dependence. This istypically in the form of a covariance or semivariogram.Spatial prediction, then, involves two steps. First, you model the covariance or semi-variogram of the spatial process. This involves choosing both a mathematical formand the values of the associated parameters. Second, you use this dependence modelin solving the kriging system at a specified set of spatial points, resulting in predictedvalues and associated standard errors.SAS/STAT software has two procedures corresponding to these steps for spatial pre-diction of two-dimensional data. The VARIOGRAM procedure is used in the firststep. Bycomputing asample estimate of the variogram or covariance, you can choosea theoretical model based on graphical or other means.

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