The VARIOGRAM Procedure
The VARIOGRAMprocedure computes sample or empirical measures of spatial con-tinuity for two-dimensional spatial data. These continuity measures are the regularsemivariogram, a robust version of the semivariogram, and the covariance. The con-tinuity measures are written to an output data set, allowing plotting or parameterestimation for theoretical semivariogram or covariance models. Both isotropic andanisotropic measures are available.The VARIOGRAM procedure produces two additional output data sets that are use-ful in the analysis of pairwise distances in the original data. The OUTPAIR= data setcontains one observation for each pair of points. Thecoordinates, distance, angle, andvalues of the analysis variables are written to this data set. The OUTDISTANCE=data set contains histogram information on the count of pairs within distance inter-vals, which is useful for determining unit lag distances.
Introduction to Spatial Prediction
Spatial prediction, in general, is any prediction method that incorporates spatial de-pendence. A simple and popular spatial prediction method is ordinary kriging.Ordinary kriging requires a model of the spatial continuity, or dependence. This istypically in the form of a covariance or semivariogram.Spatial prediction, then, involves two steps. First, you model the covariance or semi-variogram of the spatial process. This involves choosing both a mathematical formand the values of the associated parameters. Second, you use this dependence modelin solving the kriging system at a speciﬁed set of spatial points, resulting in predictedvalues and associated standard errors.SAS/STAT software has two procedures corresponding to these steps for spatial pre-diction of two-dimensional data. The VARIOGRAM procedure is used in the ﬁrststep. Bycomputing asample estimate of the variogram or covariance, you can choosea theoretical model based on graphical or other means.