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CHAPTER – 19 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS

CHAPTER – 19 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS

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Published by: usama113 on Apr 18, 2014
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CHAPTER – 19
THE ATOMIC NUCLEUSNUCLEAR STRUCTURE
The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A protonis a positively charged particle having mass 1.6726 x 10(-27 !g and charge 1.6 x 10(-1" coulom#. The charge of the proton is e$ual in magnitude of the charge of an electron% #ut opposite to it in sign. &eutrons have no charge. 'ts mass is 1.670 x 10(-)1. The mass of proton is 1*)6 times the mass of an electron.
 MASS NUMBER
The sum of the num#er of protons and neutrons in a nucleus is called +ass &um#er. 't is denoted #y ,A. This num#er is also called &ucleus  &um#er.
 ATOMIC NUMBER
The num#er of protons in a nucleus is called Atomic  &um#er or proton num#er or charge num#er. 't is denoted #y ,.
 
 NEUTRON NUMBER
The difference #et/een mass num#er and atomic num#er is called &eutron &um#er. 't is denoted #y ,& and is given #y &  A   
 REPRESENTATION OF AN ELEMENT 
 An element  having mass num#er A and atomic num#er   is represented #y the sym#ol 3A.4here  is the chemical a##reviation for the particular element.
 ISOTOPES 
The elements having same atomic num#er #ut different mass num#er or neutrons num#er are called isotopes. 5or example hydrogen deuterium and tritium ydrogen A  1%   1% &  0 euterium A  2%   1% &  1Tritium A  )%   1% &  2
Qs. Explain th phn!"n!n !# $a%i!a&ti'it(. Int$!%)&ti!n
 enri 8ac$ural discovered that 9ranium atoms (3  "2 emit highly penetrating radiations that could penetrate  paper% glass and even aluminium. :n the #asis of his
 
experimental results% he explained the phenomenon of radiation.
 *#initi!n
The phenomenon of spontaneous disintegration of nucleus of atoms is !no/n as radioactivity.
 Explanati!n
 ;adioactivity is a self-disrupting activity exhi#ited #y  some naturally occurring elements. 't has #een found% that the elements /ith atomic num#er greater than *) are unsta#le and emit certain type of radiations. <uch  su#stances (e.g. 9ranium% ;adium% Thorium are called  ;adio-active su#stances and the radiations emitted from their nuclei are called radio active radiations and the  phenomenon is !no/n as ;adioactivity. ;utherford and his co-/or!ers proved that the radiations emitted #y a radio active su#stance are of three different types.
 Exp$i"nt 
 ;adio Active radiations can #e separated #y applying electric or magnetic field to the element. A small amount of radioactive su#stance is placed at the #ottom of a cavity drilled in a #loc! of lead. 4hen the narro/ #eam of radioactive rays is allo/ed to pass through the space #et/een the t/o charged plates% the path of some rays #end. A similar effect is o#served in the presence of magnetic field.

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