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Pre-IB Biology Ecology Test Study Guide

Pre-IB Biology Ecology Test Study Guide



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Published by Julie
This was constructed out of a list of important concepts my Pre-IB Biology classes needed to understand in order to do well on an upcoming Ecology test. Enjoy!
This was constructed out of a list of important concepts my Pre-IB Biology classes needed to understand in order to do well on an upcoming Ecology test. Enjoy!

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Julie on Feb 29, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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February 27, 20083
Period Biology1
Pre-IB Biology Ecology Test Study Guide
FOOD WEBS, CHAINSFood ChainA food chain food chain food chain food chain is a single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in anecosystem that results in energy transfer.Food WebSince the feeding relationships in an ecosystem are often too complex to berepresented by a single food web, the individual food chains interlink to form a food food food foodwebwebwebweb. Many consumers eat more than one type of food and more than one species of consumer may feed on the same organism.TROPHIC LEVELSAn organism’s trophic leveltrophic leveltrophic leveltrophic level indicatesthe organism’s position in a sequence of energy transfers. All producers belong tothe first trophic level. Herbivores belong tothe second trophic level, and the predatorsbelong to the third level. Most terrestrialecosystems only have three or four trophiclevels, whereas marine ecosystems oftenhave more.
February 27, 20083
Period Biology2BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORSBiotic FactorsBiotic factorsBiotic factorsBiotic factorsBiotic factors are the living components of the environment. This includesplants and animals. For example, a river ecosystem’s biotic factors would be fish,dragonflies, turtles, bushes, reeds, and trees.Abiotic FactorsAbiotic factorsAbiotic factorsAbiotic factorsAbiotic factors are the nonliving factors – the physical and chemicalcharacteristics of the environment. This includes water, soil, humidity, sunlight, wind,and temperature.AUTOTROPHS/HETEROTROPHSAutotrophsAutotrophs, which include plants and some kinds of protists and bacteria,manufacture they own food. They capture energy and use it to make organicmolecules (producerproducerproducerproducerssss).HeterotrophsHeterotrophs must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight orother inorganic substances. These are all animals, most protists, all fungi, and manybacteria. They are consumers, getting energy by eating other organisms or organicwaste.
February 27, 20083
Period Biology3NICHE CONCEPT – WHAT IT MEANS – EXAMPLEThe specific role, or way of life, of a species within its environment is its nichenichenicheniche.This includes the range of conditions that the species can tolerate, the resource ituses, the methods by which it obtains resources, the number of offspring it has, itstime of reproduction, and all other interactions within its environment.The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also onwhat it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address",and the niche is its "profession", biologically speaking.Odum - Fundamentals of Ecology - W B Saunders 1959Oak trees absorb sunlight by photosynthesis,absorb water and mineral salts from the soil, provideshelter for animals and other plants, act as a support for creeping plants, serve as a food source for animals,and cover the ground with their dead leaves in theautumn.CARBON, NITROGEN, WATER CYCLES (GENERAL)Carbon CyclePhotosynthesis and cellular respiration formthe basis of the carboncarboncarboncarbon----cyclecyclecyclecycle. In photosynthesis,plants and other autotrophs use carbon dioxide,along with water and solar energy to makecarbohydrates. Both autotrophs and heterotrophsuse oxygen to break down carbohydrates duringcellular respiration. The byproducts of cellularrespiration are carbon dioxide and water.Decomposers release carbon dioxide into theatmosphere when they break down organiccompounds.Dead organisms and waste productseventually become fossils and fossil fuels. Whenthese are used in auto and factor emissions, carbondioxide is released into the atmosphere.

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Thank you so much! My homeschooled daughter will use this for her ecology course :)
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