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YARN Sector

YARN Sector

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Published by Sevesh

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Published by: Sevesh on Oct 31, 2009
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06/14/2013

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Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector 
1 # INTRODUCTION 
If the fibers are to be woven or knitted into cloth, they must be formed intocontinuous strands called
yarn.
Fiber supplied for the yarn is of 2 typesLong Filament – fiber with long length – e.g. Silk fiber Staple Fiber – fiber with small length – e.g. Cotton fiber 
The type of yarn chosen for a fabric affects its appearance, durability, and handand draping characteristics.
Conversion of fiber to yarn is called
Spinning.
# HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF YARN MANUFACTURING Hand Spinning 
Earlier staple fibers were twisted together by hand to form yarn.
Rolling 
the fiber between the hand and the leg is another primitive method toproduce yarn.
In both the above method excellent yarn is produced by experienced and skilledperson.
Carding 
process was done to the fiber in which fibers were straightened beforeHand Spinning process.
Fibers could be made completely parallel by a further step called
Combing,
thisprocess also include the removal of very short fibers.
Hand spinning with
Spindle
&
Distaff.
The woman holds the distaff under her leftarm, draws fibers from the bundle tied to the distaff, and spins fibers into yarn bylowering the spindle with a spinning motion. Spun yarn is wrapped around thespindle as it is formed.
A major improvement in the spinning of yarn originated in India in the form of 
Charka or Spinning Wheel.
It seems to have been invented sometime betweenA.D. 500 and A.D. 1000.
In the 16
th
century
Flyer and detachable bobbin
were invented which allowed thesimultaneous and winding of yarn into bobbin.
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Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector 
MECHANIZED SPINNING 
In 1741 John Wyatt and Lewis Paul built the first series of spinning machines for spinning cotton yarns. They used a
Roller-Drafting 
principle which helped inproducing strand of fibers called
Roving.
This roving was stretched to
Bobbin-and-Flyer twisting mechanism.
 
Arkwright used this same principle in 1769 when he constructed a spinningmachine called the
Water Frame
which was given this name because it wasoperated by water power.
James Hargreaves in 1760’s invented
Spinning Jenny 
which made eight yarns atthe same time. The yarns made by Hargreaves and Arkwright machine were notas strong as hand spun yarn.
Samuel Crompton combined
water frame
and
spinning jenny 
into one basicmachine known as
Spinning Mule,
which was basic machine for producing cottonyarn in England until well into 20
th
century.
John Thorpe invented
 Automatic Spinning Mule
in 1830 which is also called
Ring Spinning Machine
and used even today.
Open End Spinning 
in which air suction takes the fibers through tube in whichtwist is imparted to fiber was invented for staple fiber.
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Principles Of Fashion Marketing –Yarn Sector 
2 # TYPES OF YARN 
Yarn can be classified into many ways:
Main Classification
Filament Yarns
Filament yarns are made from long, continuous strand of fiber.
Monofilament yarns
are made from a single filament – Eg Nylon
Multifilament yarns
are
 
formed when many filaments are twisted together.
Texturing 
is done to make yarn more bulky and to modify feel.
Staple Yarns
Staple fibers are held together by some means in order to be formed a long,continuous yarn. Natural fibers except silk are staple fibers. Silk and manmadefibers can be broken and made staple fibers.
Staple yarn has more aesthetic qualities such as comfort, warmth, softness andappearance that make yarns highly desirable in many products.
Classification based on Number of parts
Single Ply Yarn - 
A single yarn is made from a group of filament or staple fiber twistedtogether.
Ply Yarn - 
Ply yarns are made by twisting together two or more single yarns.
Chord Yarn –
Chord yarn are made by twisting together two or more ply yarns. Chordyarns are used in making ropes, sewing thread, and cordage and are woven asdecorative yarns into some heavyweight novelty fabrics.
Double yarn
This consists of two or more single strands treated as one in theweaving process, but strands are not twisted together.
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