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P. 1
Expectations of Penal Justice.

Expectations of Penal Justice.

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Published by GLENN DALE PEASE
REV. JOHN TYRWHITT, M.A.


But there is one great and grave misconcep-
tion of Christian hope, which is based on some
lamentable truth, and which cannot be altogether
removed, since it leads to the edge of insoluble
mysteries. It meets us here, and cannot be
evaded. Men teU us, "Your hopes for your-
selves are mixed with hope and desire of the
eternal misery of your enemies ; and your notion
of your enemies is a wide one.
REV. JOHN TYRWHITT, M.A.


But there is one great and grave misconcep-
tion of Christian hope, which is based on some
lamentable truth, and which cannot be altogether
removed, since it leads to the edge of insoluble
mysteries. It meets us here, and cannot be
evaded. Men teU us, "Your hopes for your-
selves are mixed with hope and desire of the
eternal misery of your enemies ; and your notion
of your enemies is a wide one.

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Published by: GLENN DALE PEASE on Apr 23, 2014
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EXPECTATIOS OF PEAL JUSTICE. REV. JOH TYRWHITT, M.A. But there is one great and grave misconcep- tion of Christian hope, which is based on some lamentable truth, and which cannot be altogether removed, since it leads to the edge of insoluble mysteries. It meets us here, and cannot be evaded. Men teU us, "Your hopes for your- selves are mixed with hope and desire of the eternal misery of your enemies ; and your notion of your enemies is a wide one. Your Church has always anathematised and condemned, and very frequently indulged in persecution; and you yourselves, though you profess to forgive your enemies, only hand them on in anticipation to a merciless judgment, from which you can grant them no amnesty. To do you justice, we do not think you want to bum us yourselves on earth, or that you really desire our eternal misery ; but neither you nor your faith nor any other can give us relief in this great matter.'' ow as far as this kind of language is prompted by genuine distress on the question of eternal punishment, we can only sympathise 56 CHRISTIA IDEALS AD HOPEa with it, and say it is not our fault if we abide by what is written. But if it is meant that the Christian Faith and the promises we claim from it are worth nothing, uiJess they are stretched to doctrines of universal salvation, we note, first, that Christianity is the only creed under which such ideas as the redemption of all mankind can
 
possibly exist— which is one thing; aiid then we say there are two classes of texts in Holy Scripture, warnings and promises, and that we shall never in this world be able to see how they are all true together, as they are. We can say that it appears from documents that the Church's imagination was early exercised in solemn and embolic representations of heaven as described in the Apocalypse, and that for nearly a thousand years hell was not represented, nor perhaps made a subject of Christian meditation. Against this the celebrated passage from Tertullian is produced from the anti- Christian arsenal of Gibbon s fifteenth chapter, and the whole subject and history of Christian persecution is opened. Omitting invective, it is felt that persecution to death for religion implies a belief on the part of the persecutor that obstinate error involves consequences worse than death, and some form of eternal condemnation or the death of the soul. Persecution, it is said, is a legitimate or at least EXPECTATIOS OF PEAL JUSTICE. 57 logical result from the idea of everlasting punish- ment : therefore, unless you are express in re-  jecting that, you are logically a persecutor. On this it must be remarked, that though Christian persecutors by logical afterthought, and non-Christians contemplating their proceed- ings, connect persecution with the belief in eternal punishment, — so that it has seemed proper to threaten your heretic with the stake to save his soul from Gehenna, and even to burn him if he goes on teaching heresy, to save others from the same ;— nevertheless, persecution began without the least reference to eternal punish-
 
ment. It began in a tumultuary way with Sadducees who believed neither in resurrection nor spirit, and was conducted on no principle except oflfence against the Jewish law. As to expectations of a future world, do our opponents deliberately charge us with expecting to be happy in eternally persecuting them, or in see- ing anybody else do it ? An inquisitor, we hope, would not wish to carry on his trade for ever, but to find it at last unnecessary, and his occupation gone. But we must remark, again, that persecution, as far as Christians are con- cerned with it, is no invention of theirs. It began with the statecraft of Caiaphas ; it broke out again for the safety and pleasure of ero ; 56 CHRISTIA IDEAXS AD HOPES. it was legally regulated by Trajan, the younger Pliny's zeal having already carried him further than the Emperor desired (he had put two deacon- esses to the torture, besides executions ^) ; then it rose to attempted extermination, and was renewed again and again till Constantine and the peace of the Church. It was always a thoroughly secular or state proceeding ; though the Pagan priesthood everywhere, and as time passed and the Faith became a social or political power, the great hostile pagan interest in Eome, may have set the state in motion from time to time. All depended on the Emperor, the mili- tary imperator of the Roman world. To dis- obey him was high treason ; so it was to deny his divinity. Whether the Christian offended the numen or the majestas of Divus Cassar, he was subject to the extremity of fire and steel if he would not sacrifice. Religious per- secution by the Church through the state is

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