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MB0034 Research Methedology Assignment 1

MB0034 Research Methedology Assignment 1

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Published by: Madhu M Nair on Nov 01, 2009
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Assignment -1 Research Methodology MB0034Meera Manikandan Nair 520845475
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Explain the different types of research.
Types of ResearchAlthough any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary. Research may be classified crudelyaccording to its major intent or the methods . According to the intent research may be classifiedas:Pure ResearchIt is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any Intention to apply it in practice, e.g.,Einstein's theory of relativity, Newton's contributions, Gatileo's contribution, etc. It is also knownas basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness.It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for appliedresearch. It offers solutions to marry practical p
oblems It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the bestsolutionApplied Researchit is carried on to And solution to d real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It isthus problem-oriented and action-directed, It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g.,marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchaseexperience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutionsto a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge byloading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or a conceptual clarity. It can put theoryto the test. t may aid in conceptual clarification !t may integrate previously existing theoriesExploratory ResearchIt is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about whichthe researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determinedobjectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generatenew ideas, or to increase the researcher's familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulationof the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible toattempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. "At the first level is thediscovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables."Descriptive StudyIt is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It ismore specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a
Assignment -1 Research Methodology MB0034Meera Manikandan Nair 520845475
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community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young scienceand useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight importantmethodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be usefulfor prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program.Diagnostic StudyIt is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what ishappening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testingwhether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem,its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collectingaccurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.Evaluation StudiesIt is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the developmentof the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity andits performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concernedwith causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with changeover time.Action ResearchIt is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launchedfor solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis,sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and postexperimental evaluation.According to the methods of study, research may be classified as:1.Experimental Research: It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. It aims at determining whether and in whatmanner variables are related to each other.2. Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitativedata. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable tonumerical data. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. It aims at testing hypothesis andspecifying and interpreting relationships.3.Historical Research: It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view toreconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system anddiscovering the trends in the past. It is descriptive in nature. It is a difficult task; it must often dependupon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon directobservation.
Assignment -1 Research Methodology MB0034Meera Manikandan Nair 520845475
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4. Survey: It is a fact-finding study. It is a method of research involving collection of data directlyfrom a population or a sample thereof at particular time. Its purpose is to provide information,explain phenomena, to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications
Discuss the criteria of good research problem.
Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:1. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check.2. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describingthings exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing.3. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement. This avoidscolourful literature and vague meanings.4. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic andorganized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casual recollections are generallyincomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions.5. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation is unaffected bythe observer's values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts asthey are, not as he might wish them to be.6. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since human memory isfallible, all data collected are recorded.7. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine whathappens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation - allowingone variable to vary while holding all other variables constant.
Describe the procedure used to test the hypothesis
To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not thehypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not toaccept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. The various stepsinvolved in hypothesis testing are stated below:Making a Formal StatementThe step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (H
) and also of the alternativehypothesis (H
). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering the nature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearingcapacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in that case he can state his hypothesis as under 

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