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Lecture 10

# Lecture 10

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Published by: Mohamed Maher on Apr 23, 2014

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04/23/2014

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Equivalent Systems
A systemof several forces
(
,

,

,

,.....) can be reduced at a single point B to a system consisting of a Couple
,

and a force
[ or what we call ,an (
,

)system.] where,

=

=


and
=

The result of the reduction of the forces may be one of these cases mentioned in the following table:-

Case

0

0 Force-Couple

(
,

)system

1

0

0 Force-Couple

(
,

)system

2

0
=
0 A Single Couple

(
)

3
=
0

0 A Single Force

(
)

4
=
0
=
0 Equilibrium
Case (1)
A special case of case one is when the equivalent couple is parallel to the line of action of the resultant force. This cace is called
Wrench
. Suppose the point at which the system is equivalent to a wrench is A(
x, y, z
)
i.e
at A,

⁄

⁄

,
see figure
.

We can simply take the moment of the system about O as follows:

=

+

×
Since

we can write

=

where
is a scalar quantity called the
Pitch
of the wrench. The above equation becomes;

=

+
×
.......... (1) Where,
r
= OA
=xi+yj+zk
.This equation is called
equation of the wrench
. Now if we dot multiply both sides by (
) we can write,,

=

+
×
,the last term is easily noted to be zero so that we conclude that :

=

=


=


..
...........(2) Equation (2) is the equation for calculation of the
pitch
. Example: Find the pitch and the axis of the wrench equivalent to the three forces shown in figure. Find also point of intersection of the axis of the wrench with the vertical yz plane. Solution
=100

=30
√
10×12
4
√
12
+4

=30
√
10×12
4
4
√
10

=90
30

=60
√
5
10
8

4
√
10
+8
+4

=60
√
5
10
8

4
6
√
5

=
-100i-80j-40k

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