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Traffic Flow Simulation by Using a Mathematical Model Based On

Traffic Flow Simulation by Using a Mathematical Model Based On

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 TRAFFIC FLOW SIMULATION BY USING AMATHEMATICAL MODEL BASED ON ANONLINEAR VELOCITY-DENSITY FUNCTION
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of the
 Masters of Science
inMathematics
By-Muhammad Humayun Kabir Exam Roll: Math 060654Reg. No: 17606Session: 2005-06Supervisor:Dr. Laek Sazzad Andallah Department of MathematicsJahangirnagar UniversitySavar Dhaka-1342Bangladesh
 
December 31, 2008
Introduction
Nowadays traffic flow and congestion is one of the main societal and economicalproblems related to transportation in industrialized countries. Traffic congestion is oneof the greatest problems in Bangladesh like some other countries of the world. In thisrespect, countries managing traffic in congested networks requires a cleaunderstanding of traffic flow operations. Traffic problems on highways and in urbanareas attract considerable attention. Therefore, an efficient traffic control andmanagement is essential in order to get rid of such huge traffic congestion.The study of traffic flow aims to understand traffic behavior in urban context in order toseveral questions:a)Where to install traffic lights or stop signsb)How long the cycle of traffic lights should be
c)
Where to build up accesses, exits, overpasses or underpasses
d)
How many lanes for a highway to construct
e)
Where to develop alternative outline of transportation like monorails or trams.The aims of this analysis are principally represented by the maximization of cars flow,and the minimization of traffic congestions, accidents and pollutions etc.Many scientists have been working to develop various mathematical models in order todescribe and subsequently, optimize traffic flow, such as
o
The microscopic car following model.
o
The macroscopic fluid-dynamic model, and
o
The kinetic (Boltzmann) model.These models describe diverse situations with different assumptions andsimplifications. We focus on
macroscopic fluid-dynamic model
because it is moreefficient and easy to implement than other modeling approaches. The macroscopicapproach is analogous to theories of fluid dynamics or continuum hypothesis.
Introduction
 2
 
Macroscopic traffic flow models are characterized by representations of traffic flow interms of aggregate measures such as flux, space mean speed, and density.Unlike microscopic models which represent individual vehicle movements, macroscopicmodels sacrifice a great deal of detail but gain by way of efficiency an ability to dealwith problems of much larger scope.The macroscopic traffic model developed first by Lighthill and Whitham (1955) andRichard (1956) shortly called LWR model was most suitable for correct description of traffic flow. In this model, vehicles in traffic flow are considered as particles in fluid:further the behavior of traffic flow is modeled by the method of Fluid dynamics andformulated by hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE).The macroscopic traffic flow model is used to study traffic flow by collective variablessuch as traffic flow rate (flux)
( )
 xq
,
, traffic speed
( )
 x
,
and traffic density
( )
 x
,
 ρ 
,all of which are functions of space,
 R x
and time,
+
 R
. The most well-knownLWR model is formulated by employing the conservation equation 
( )
(*)0
= +
 xq
 ρ  ρ 
The LWR model comes from two facts and one assumption. The two facts area)On a homogeneous road without sources and sinks, the number of vehicles onthe road is conserved and
 b)
The flux,
q
is a product of density,
 ρ 
and speed
.The assumption is about the existence of a unique relation between speed and density.A numerical study for linear density-velocity relationship has been performed in [2].In this thesis, we use a non-linear velocity-density relationship of the form 
( )
            =
2maxmax
1
 ρ  ρ  ρ 
then the flux is of the form
( )
            =
2maxmax
1.
 ρ  ρ  ρ  ρ 
q
In chapter 1, we derive the macroscopic traffic flow model with corresponding variablesbased on [2], [5]. In chapter 2, we present the analytic solution of the nonlinear PDE (*)which is in implicit form. It is very difficult to incorporate the realistic data in the analyticsolution of this PDE. As a result it is almost obligatory to use the numerical solution
Introduction
 3

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